The Characteristics and Formation of Meanders

Meanders are sinuous bends in a river’s middle and lower courses. In low flow conditions, alternating pools and riffles are formed along the river bed. The river channel is deeper in pools so it has greater energy and more erosive power. Energy is lost as the river flows over a riffle because of friction. These cause the river’s flow to become uneven and maximum flow to be concentrated on one side of the river, causing lateral erosion on one side, creating an outer concave bank.
Deposition takes place on the other side of the bend, creating a convex bank. The cross-section of a meander is asymmetrical. The outer bank forms a river cliff or a bluff with a deep pool close to the bank, mainly because of the fast flow, hydraulic action and abrasion. The inner bank is a gently sloping deposit of sand and gravel, called a point bar. Meanders are maintained by a surface flow of water across to the concave outer bank with a balancing subsurface return flow back to the convex inner bank.
This corkscrew-like movement of water is called helicoidal flow. In this way, eroded material from the outer bank is transported away and deposited on the inner bank. The combination of erosion and deposition exaggerates the bends until large meanders are formed. Sometimes, oxbow lakes are formed when the neck of the loop of a meander is broken through, and the new cut eventually becomes the main channel, leaving the formed channel sealed off by deposition.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
The Characteristics and Formation of Meanders
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay
Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
Live Chat+1(978) 822-0999EmailWhatsApp