Health Promotion Theories

Read information on the theories in health promotion including pender’s health promotion model and the health belief model. Conduct a brief online search of the news, literature or reputable health websites to find illustrations of uses of each theory and the important aspects.

The journal by Ronis, Hong and Lusk (2016) illustrates the uses and important aspects of Pender’s health promotion model (HPM). The authors conducted the study to compare the usefulness of the revised version of Pender’s health promotion model. The model focuses on individual experiences and characteristics, behavioral outcomes as well as behavior-specific cognition and effects. The authors noted that people have unique personal experiences and characteristics which affect their subsequent actions. They argued that the use of the theory is to modify variables for specific behavior using nursing actions. The outcome of such modification is promotion of the desired health behavior. Ronis, Hong and Lusk (2006) pointed out that the important aspect of the model is to improve health, enhance functional ability and better the quality of life in all development stages of an individual’s life.

            The publication by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is another piece of literature that illustrates uses of different health promotion theories. The publication points out that physical activity programs should be evaluated in accordance with the theories to reflect progress. The evaluations influence policy makers, they engage communities and build community capacity, they share part of program that works or that which does not work, and they lastly ensure sustainability. Some of the health promotion theories illustrated in the publication include the health belief model, stages of change (transtheoretical) model, relapse prevention, social cognitive/social learning theory, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior and diffusion of innovations theory.

            According to the US Department of Health and Human Services (2012), the key concepts of Health Belief Model include perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits of action, cues to action, perceived severity, perceived barriers to action and self-efficacy. The model predicts and explains health behaviors by focusing on beliefs and attitudes of individuals. For effective use of the model, several assumptions have to be in place. First, it is assumed that an individual takes action that is health-related if he/she feels that it is possible to avoid a negative health condition. Second, the individual takes action if he/she believes that the negative health condition will be avoided by taking the recommended action. Third, the individual takes action if he/she believes they can succeed in taking the action. The importance of the theory is to urge people to adopt physical activity behaviors that are recommended. Such behaviors include those whose benefits of action and perceived threat of disease outweigh the perceived barriers to action.

            Stages of change (Transtheoretical) model illustrates the manner in which an organization or individual integrates new goals, behaviors and programs at different levels. According to the publication, the uses of this theory are to essentially assess individual, community or organizational barriers in the quest to develop and implement a health promotion program. The article lists six stages, where at every stage, various interventions help individuals to progress to the next stage. In the first pre-contemplation stage, the intention to take any action lacks. In the contemplation stage, the intention of taking action is availed as well as the plain of doing so. In the preparation stage, the intention to take action is available, and different steps are taken. For the action stage, behavior is changed for a brief amount of time. In the maintenance stage, behavior changed continues to be maintained in the long-term. In the final stage of termination, the desire to return to prior negative behaviors has been eliminated (RHIhub, 2017). As described, each health promotion theory has unique aspects that ensures it succeeds as desired.


RHIhub. (2017). Stages of Change Model (Transtheoretical Model). Retrieved from

Ronis, D., Hong, O., & Lusk, S. (2016). Comparison of the original and revised structures of the health promotion model in predicting construction workers’ use of hearing protection. Research In Nursing & Health, 29(1), 3-17.

US Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Physical Activity Evaluation Handbook. Atlanta, GA. Available at from

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