Blacks in Low Income Environments and Health And Obesity there compared to Suburbs.

Literature Review Resources

NumberArticle InformationAdded to RefWorks? Y or N (optional) 
ReferenceCorral, I., Landrine, H., Hall, M. B., Bess, J. J., Mills, K. R., & Efird, J. T. (2015). Residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults: a critical review. Frontiers in public health3, 169.
AnnotationThe article indicates that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is high among the Americans, especially the African-America. An example to show this indicates that the prevalence of obesity/overweight among the African-Americans is 44% more than that of the White women. Racial disparities in socioeconomic status and in health behaviors contribute to racial disparities in body weight and African-American cultural variable. The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among the African-America adults need to be established. The article points to the fact that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adult. Low-SES neighborhoods usually have obese environments that contribute to overweight and to have obesity among their residents irrespective of resident race-ethnicity. The findings indicate that residing in a segregated African-American neighborhood might lead to overweight and obesity among African-American which might explain the reasons for racial disparities in body weight that overcome low-SES.
ReferenceLi, Y., Robinson, L. E., Carter, W. M., & Gupta, R. (2015). Childhood obesity and community food environments in Alabama’s Black Belt region. Child: care, health and development41(5), 668-676.
AnnotationThis article focused on establishing childhood obesity and community food environments. The article noted that childhood obesity is continuously on the rise in the USA. The prevalence rate is indicated to be much higher among those in lower socioeconomic status and racial/ethnicity minority group. Research carried out in Alabama notes that almost half of the children in rural African American families are overweight or obese. The article highlights that the position raised in several other articles where the children’s eating behavior and weigh could be influenced by surrounding food environments. From the analysis of the findings indicated that children’s weight is influenced by community food environments, socio-demographic factors and school context. The article is thereby influential in this research as it points out to the environment factors play in a key role in obesity-related behaviors. 

ReferenceLopez, R. P., & Hynes, H. P. (2006). Obesity, physical activity, and the urban environment: public health research needs. Environmental Health5(1), 25.
The article points to the persistent trends in overweight and obesity tends to focus on the environment, physical activity, and overweight. It can be noted that most of the research have been carried out in suburbs. The studies have suggested that different feature of the suburban built environment including low densities, poor street connectivity and lack of sidewalks are associated with reduced physical activity and heightened risk of being overweight. Importantly, relative to the suburban residents, the residents in the inner city populations have higher rates of obesity and inactivity despite living in dense areas that have good street connectivity. This research article introduces an element of land use, where different factors such as policies on zoning influences how the land is used. 

ReferenceLovasi, G. S., Hutson, M. A., Guerra, M., & Neckerman, K. M. (2009). Built environments and obesity in disadvantaged populations. Epidemiologic reviews31(1), 7-20.

AnnotationThe article notes that in the US, health disparities in obesity and related diseases are a subject of concern. The article is focused to gain an understanding on how obesity-related health disparities may be related with the obesogenic built environment. The article notes that there is a correlation between obesity and the built environment. The article noted that the disadvantaged group lived in worse environment with respect to issues such as food stores, places to exercise and traffic related safety. It is indicated that people of back race and Hispanic ethnicity are noted to be a higher risk of overweight or obesity. However the situation is noted to be much more complex than a simple reality. This article will be relevant and informative to the current research process. 

ReferenceZenk, S. N., Schulz, A. J., & Odoms-Young, A. (2009). How neighborhood environments contribute to obesity. The American journal of nursing109(7), 61.
AnnotationThe article observes that most of researchers in the past has focused on determining the psychosocial factors that influence obesity and related action. It introduces new angle that need to be considers, the role of environmental factors in influencing the obesity and related behavior. It is noted that obesity is a major issue of concern among African American, as the prevalence of obesity among African-American women in noted to be much higher than in other races, ethnic, and gender groups. It is indicated that the element of behavior change is highly challenging for people living in low-income and minority neighborhoods. Among the reason indicated in this is the limitation of resources required to maintain healthy lifestyles and greater presence of health risks. This article will thus be informative to the current research as it will provide insights into how neighborhood contribute to obesity.
6Reference Alaba, Q., & L, C. (2014). Socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity prevalence in South Africa: a decomposition analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health.3(3), 387-406. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110303387.

Annotation The author explores on the relationship between obesity and socio-inequalities among adults in South Africa. The authors were led by the increased prevalence of obesity among low and middle classes as well as its prevalence in developing countries. The research explores on the environmental aspect of obesity where its prevalence is increasing in low income regions. According to their findings, the rate of obesity is higher among rich men with a concentration index of 0.07 in comparison to the poorer population. This led them to a conclusion on a differing intervention where policy makers should formulate intervention that focus on economically well-off population irrespective of their socioeconomic status. 
7Reference White, J., Rehkopf, D., & Mortensen, L. (2016). Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Body Mass Index, Underweight and Obesity among English Children, 2007–2008 to 2011–2012. PLOS ONE11(1), e0147614. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147614y
Annotation The authors explored on the socioeconomic inequalities that influence obesity among children. They attained this by exploring on the aspect of underweight among children in deprived groups. The article identifies that there is a socio-economic gradient of obesity in rich countries which poses the population at risk of cardiovascular  diseases. The key aspect of this article is that it examined 5,027,128 children following a National Child Measurement Program in UK. The article why this article is significant for the current dissertation is because it is a tie trend analysis of 2007–2008 to 2011–2012. It also explored both underweight children and obese. 
8ReferenceRaeisi, A., Mehboudi, M., Darabi, H., Nabipour, I., Larijani, B., & Mehrdad, N. et al. (2017). Socioeconomic inequality of overweight and obesity of the elderly in Iran: Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) Program. BMC Public Health17(1). doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3912-1Y
Annotation Raeis et al (2017) explores on the aspect of socioeconomic inequality of obesity and overweight among elderly population in Iran. The authors followed a population-based research method and they analyzed a large sample. The drive for the was study the increasing prevalence of obesity cases in developing countries. This illustrates that obesity is no longer a disease for the rich countries but affects even the developing. The author thus illustrates that poor countries should not only worry about mortality resulting from underweight but also from overweight. However, the study indicates that obesity distribution is not equal to all countries meaning there is inequality and burden in different  environment. The study concludes that there is a direct relationship between obesity and socioeconomic status in developing nations. 
9Reference Peng, W., & Berry, E. (2018). Global nutrition 1990–2015: A shrinking hungry and expanding fat world. PLOS ONE13(3), e0194821. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194821y
Annotation The article explores on the Global Nutritional Index (GNI) which was previously on malnutrition but now includes the nutritional trends and nutritional status. This article has tackled both over nutrition and under nutrition in the world. The reason for including this article is its advantage over the other as it forms a global  analysis of nutrition status between 1990 and 2005. One significant observation of the study is that the global incidence of undernutrition and malnutrition  has reduced while the incidence of obesity has greatly increased.  The authors applied the following normalized indicators to identify the Human Development Index: penalizing obesity, micronutrient deficiency (MID), and protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). The article concludes that the level of  obesity in developed countries is attenuating while that in developing countries is increasing. 
10ReferenceKim, T., & Knesebeck, O. (2017). Research Income and obesity: what is the direction of the relationship? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Journals8(1). doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019862y
Annotation The article explores on the direction of the relationship between obesity and income. They attained this by following a meta-analysis and systematic review. The authors explain that persons with low income has a great influence on obesity incidence. The article is significant as it illustrates the link between social  causation and reverse causality. The study illustrates that individuals in low income environment have a high likelihood to obesity. Another identified finding is that women have a more pronounced reverse causality in comparison to men. This article will be significant as it illustrates the direct correlation between obesity and income as it addresses income-related inequalities in obesity. 
11ReferenceJaacks, L., Slining, M., & Popkin, B. (2015). Recent trends in the prevalence of under- and overweight among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. Pediatric Obesity10(6), 428-435. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12000
Annotation The significance of the study is that it explores on the recent trends of overweight and underweight in developing countries. This article is important because it gives varying trends in low- and middle-income countries. The  high prevalence is more in urban environment where the populating lifestyle and social status heightens the issue. The intention of the author was to explore on the dual burden of nutrition issues in developing countries. They conclude that there is significant difference in the incidence of obesity across regions and nations with dual burdens seen in urban regions. The authors campaigns for more age specific interventions to solve the ongoing issue. The article can form a baseline for the ongoing dissertation .  
12ReferenceLissner, L., Wijnhoven, T., Mehlig, K., Sjöberg, A., Kunesova, M., & Yngve, A. et al. (2016). Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood overweight: heterogeneity across five countries in the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI–2008). International Journal of Obesity40(5), 796-802. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2016.12
Annotation The article explores on socioeconomic inequalities among children who are obesity and overweight. This study is significant as it explores the heterogeneity on five countries in Europe. Although Europe is developed, the authors explored on the incidence of obesity in socioeconomically disadvantaged families which was  compared to the incidence among high income environment. However, the article  identifies that inequality among the weight of children. The authors explored on heterogeneity which is the association between obesity of the weight of children and parental socioeconomic. The results of the study identify that there is a negative and positive associations between obesity and socioeconomic status of the parent. Being a study conducted in developed country, it will be significant for the literature review. 
13Reference Bilger, M., Kruger, E., & Finkelstein, E. (2016). Measuring Socioeconomic Inequality in Obesity: Looking Beyond the Obesity Threshold. Health Economics26(8), 1052-1066. doi: 10.1002/hec.3383
Annotation The authors measured the socioeconomic inequality  in obesity. They attained this b y combining two measures in the poverty  and inequality literature, the Foster–Greer–Thorbecke metric and the concentration index to analyze the  ocioeconomic inequality in obesity. This research explored the socioeconomic inequality by exploring socioeconomic gradient. The study identified that there is a high socioeconomic gradient where some populations are more affected than other communities. For example, the study identifies that non-Hispanic whites are  more affected than white. This study is an indication of the environmental differences as well as genetic aspect of obesity. However, the study identifies that the poorer population are further way from the obesity threshold. 
14Reference Kjellberg, J., Tange Larsen, A., Ibsen, R., & Højgaard, B. (2017). The Socioeconomic Burden of Obesity. Obesity Facts10(5), 493-502. doi: 10.1159/000480404
Annotation This article explores on the socioeconomic burden of obesity. The authors estimate the direct and indirect cost of obesity in Denmark. The significance of the study it explored persons with varying BMI levels which was compared to individual factors such as healthcare costs, social transfer payments, and income. The study is unique from  others  as it applies a register-based study to explore on the total burden on elevated BMI. Although this study is not rich with the information applied for the study, it will formal a baseline in the available literature to evaluate if there is a direct link between obesity and the environment or with the socio-economic status.
15Reference Conklin, A., Ponce, N., Frank, J., Nandi, A., & Heymann, J. (2016). Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low- and Middle-Income Countries. PLOS ONE11(3), e0150736. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150736
Annotation The article explores the relation between minimum wage and obesity among women. Although the ,study explores specifically on women, it provides an outline on the impact of income to obesity and overweight incidence. The authors have illustrated varying factors that can explain the reason why some environments are more affected by obesity in comparison to others. The authors explain that there is a potential, influence of improved wages as a significant precursor of lifestyle diseases worldwide. They state that economic factors are responsible in increasing the incidence of overweight and obesity. This has resulted to the dual problem particularly in developing countries. 
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