Unit V Research Report

Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases that are characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of cells all over the body. Among the different types of cancer, breast cancer is arguably the most common form of cancer that is most prevalent in women, with rare cases in men. In the United States, breast cancer is ranked as the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Virtually, several malignant cells and external factors are involved in the formation of cancer risk factors. In this context, this study seeks to give a better insight into the illness including the various risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, stages of breast cancer, and treatment options available

Female Breast Cancer

In the United States, it is estimated that about 1 in 8 women will develop invasive breast cancer in their lifetime (“U.S. Breast Cancer Statistics,” 2017). Further statistics show that by this year, an estimated 252,710 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed alongside 63,410 cases of non-invasive. That is not all, as the number of women expected to die from the disease has been increasing since 1989 despite advanced cancer treatments. By definition, Jin & Mu (2015) terms breast cancer as a type of cancer where malignant cells form a tumor or lymph node in the breast. Although the tumors start growing in the breast, they sometimes spread to other organs through the bloodstream, which most of the times ends up in chronic illness and death for many people. Overall, as Kabel & Baali (2015) elaborate, the risk factors for breast cancer include a broad combination of genetic and environmental factors such as advanced age, early menstrual periods, genetic mutations, and family history. Typically, the development of breast cancer can be broken into several stages usually ranging from 0 to 4, with each numeral implying a diagnosis with an increase in number signifying advanced cancer (“Stages of Breast Cancer,” 2017). Stage 0 is also referred to as noninvasive cancer and is detected early. Treatment is possible and easily goes away. Stage 1 breast cancer refers to when the malignant cells start attacking the healthy tissue and usually known as invasive breast cancer, and just like stage 0 cancer, it is highly treatable. Stage 2 breast cancer means cancer has grown and spread and requires highly aggressive treatment options. Stage 3 is when cancer is advanced stage but has not spread to other organs and bones. Although it is considered advanced, there are some treatment methods. Stage 4 is the most advanced stage of breast cancer, which also means that the malignant cells have already spread to bones and other organs. There are treatment options, but extremely strenuous and exhausting.

Symptoms

When breast cancer is in the development stage, there are usually no symptoms at all, but as it grows women should watch out for various signs such as lump or thickening in the breast or the underarm (Kabel & Baali, 2015). A change in size and shape of the breast, nipple discharge, or breast tenderness may also be a sign of breast cancer. 

Diagnosis

Essentially, as Kabel & Baali (2015) elaborate, diagnosis of cancer involves performing a careful physical examination alongside personal and family medical history. Apart from checking the general signs, the doctor may also do a palpation exam, order a mammography, or an ultrasonography to diagnose a breast lump. Further evaluation involves fine needle aspiration, needle biopsy, or surgical biopsy to diagnose the tissue or fluid removed from the breast.

Treatment

Treatment of breast cancer involves three options, which include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (Kabel & Baali, 2015). Surgery, which is the most commonly preferred treatment for breast cancer involves a surgical procedure to remove the cancer tumor in the breast or an operation to remove the breast. Usually, radiotherapy includes the use of high-energy x-rays to shrink and destroy cancerous cells. Chemotherapy uses cancer-killing drugs to destroy the cancerous cells. Other treatment options include hormonal therapy used to prevent hormones from reaching cancer cells and inhibit their growth.

Recommendations

Through continuing research, there are several treatment options based on the size and location of the tumor in the breast, as well as the lab results. A majority of those women who have breast cancer also want to learn all about the disease. Contacting the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Information Service is one way to get updated cancer treatment information, including current clinical trials. Other sources may include getting help from various cancer hospitals all around the United States.

References

“Stages of Breast Cancer.” (2017). Breastcancer.org. Retrieved from: http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/diagnosis/staging

“U.S. Breast Cancer Statistics.” (2017). Breastcancer.org. Retrieved from: http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/statistics

Jin, X., & Mu, P. (2015). Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis. Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research, 9(1), pp. 23-34.

Kabel, A. M., & Baali, F. H. (2015). Breast Cancer: Insights into Risk Factors, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment, 3(2), pp. 28-33.

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

At Solution Essays, we are determined to deliver high-quality papers to our clients at a fair price. To ensure this happens effectively, we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees. This guarantees will ensure you enjoy using our website which is secure and easy to use.

Money-back guarantee

Most companies do not offer a money-back guarantee but with Solution Essays, it’s either a quality paper or your money back. Our customers are assured of high-quality papers and thus there are very rare cases of refund requests due to quality concern.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

All our papers are written from scratch and according to your specific paper instructions. This minimizes any chance of plagiarism. The papers are also passed through a plagiarism-detecting software thus ruling out any chance of plagiarism.

Read more

Free-revision policy

We offer free revisions in all orders delivered as long as there is no alteration in the initial order instruction. We will revise your paper until you are fully satisfied with the order delivered to you.

Read more

Privacy policy

All data on our website is stored as per international data protection rules. This ensures that any personal data you share with us is stored safely. We never share your personal data with third parties without your consent.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

Ordering and sending money to us is an indication that you are purchasing our products and services. To have business talks laid out in the official language, you can check on our terms and conditions and get more information about this.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code: LEMONADEPlace Order