E1/E2 – Three different types of settings which provide care and education for children in the Birmingham area Primary School A primary school is a statutory sector which is funded by the government through payment of taxes. By law, this service must be made available to young children in the UK. The targeted age of children that attend Primary school ranges from 5 to 11 years of age. A Primary school is a structured environment which helps support young children to develop and perfect basic skills needed in life; some of which are: reading, writing, and social skills.
Primary School starts at 9am and ends at 3:30pm depending on a breakfast or after school clubs. Like any other organization, there is an organizational structure by which each school must have. Within a Primary School, one will find a Head Teacher, Class Teachers, Dinner Ladies, Care Takers, Cleaners, Cooks, a Chef and also Teacher Assistants whom help to keep order and maintain a class room in a Teacher’s absence. Teachers within a Primary School are obligated by law to teach from the National Curriculum which is distributed to every Primary School. The ratio of teachers to children is twenty-eight to thirty.
A primary school also helps support parents and families, for example; while the parents are at work their child and/or children are at school in a safe environment whilst gaining an education parents can work and provide a better quality of life for their families. Play group A play group is a voluntary sector. A voluntary sector is a service provided by organisations such as charities where some or all of their funding come from donations the practitioners here often give their time freely but must be trained to level 3 in childcare and education or working towards it.
The age range of children in a play group is two to three years old and children have to be dry throughout the day (being potty trained). Play groups are free and are two hours a day twice a week and can be done anytime throughout the day. Staffs at play groups are voluntary. All the staff at a playgroup is trained to a Level 3 in Childcare and Education and is required to have a Criminal Record Bureau Check. With the play groups, parents have to stay and allowed to help but must have a Criminal Record Bureau Check also.
This setting supports families in the community if they are feeling isolated mums can socialise and chat about problems that other mums may be experiencing too. A variety of activities are done in a play group (e. g. painting, story time, colouring time) helping children with their social skills which helps them in moving into educational nursery at 3 to 4 years old. Play groups are supportive for parents because they help Moms and Dads to share problems with other people with rather similar or same experiences, have a cup of tea or just talk with other parents.
Private Day Nursery A private day nursery is a private sector which is a profit making service. A private day nursery opens from 7am and closes at about 6:30pm parents pay a weekly or monthly fee. The age range of children in a private day nursery is three months to five years old. The staff at a private day nursery “Nursery Officers” has to be trained in Level 3 Childcare and Education. Children within a private day nursery are split into four different age ranges.
Three months to five months are in Baby Room where there is allowed one staff member to three babies. Twelve months to twenty-four months are in Toddle Room, two to three years old are in Tweenies and three to five years old are in Pre-School. A private day nursery help supports parents because it is more family orientated and the setting is very much like what parents do at home with their child or children (e. g. caring, bottle feeding, changing nappies).
A private nursery also supports professional parents who can afford to pay to take their child to a day nursery and don’t have to give up their work (e. g. doctors, entrepreneurs, nurses) to start a young family. E3- Describe the main legislation in your country that supports the rights of children. There are four main Legislation that deal with children’s welfare within the Birmingham City that supports the rights of children and these Legislations are: Children Act 1989- (Partnership with parents is crucial)
The Children Act 1989 introduced “parental responsibility” not just parental rights so therefore statutory services like schools and nurseries must include “Partnership with Parents” Within my setting and by the Children Act 1989 that came in to force in England and Wales in 1991 it is important for the practitioner to be in partnership with parents. This is to ensure that the needs, interest and decisions of the child comes first and are being met. Also, it is by law that parents be responsible and knows everything about their child when they are away from them or home.
This can be done by having a two way relationship with parents for example parent’s evenings, this is when staff discusses children’s progress open days so parents can come in be welcomed and look around their child’s school or nursery. There can be coffee mornings, sharing information or just giving feedback to parents when they pick their child up from school at the end of the day. The welfare of the child is paramount and that is why partnership with parents is crucial.
Many schools and nurseries also have bi-lingual staff for children who do not speak English fluently so that the parents are fully aware of what is going on in a school at all times this helps to meet the Equal Opportunity policy of the setting. Children Act 2004- (Stay Safe) The five outcomes of Every Child Matters are the central focus of the Children Act 2004. This Act is the amendment of the Children Act 1989 which came about because of the death of Victoria Climbie who was tortured and murdered in 2000 by her great Aunt and even though lots of professionals dealt with the case it still led to her death.
The Lord Laming Inquiry made changes in schools because he felt that organisations were not working together to support young venerable children in the setting. The Children Act 2004 was made to ensure that services for children and young people worked together to make sure children are safe and their well-being is adhere to. For example one of the outcomes is “Stay Safe” in Every Child Matters and is of utmost importance. Within my setting as a practitioner you are to make sure that children within the setting are safe by following the Health and Safety policies.
For example, knowing what allergies as a practitioner that a children or children may have within your setting or making sure that the right person “Parental Responsibility” picks them up from school at the end of the day. Childcare Act 2006- (Local authorities must improve the outcomes for all children under (5) five. They must take the lead role to meet the needs of working parents, in particular those on low incomes and disabled children). The Childcare Act 2006 came into force from Autumn 2007. The main part of this Act is the establishment of the Commission for Equality and Human Rights.
The (EYFS) Early Years Foundation Stage came out of the Childcare Act 2006. The main reasons why the Childcare Act 2006 came into force were: To ensure that local authorities improve the outcomes for children and young people under (5) five years and this must be available despite the area in which they live. This affected the curriculum taking into account children’s rights and backgrounds for example the EYFS is taken into account and reformed simplified children and early year’s regulations farceur to reduce bureaucracy and focus on raising equality.
Schools made sure children were heard their cultures celebrated for example displays were bi-lingual Sure Start centres supported families that were in deprived areas whilst mum was in the setting learning English for example a child could go to the playgroup at the same time. If a mum could learn English she could gain employment and this seemed to be the idea to help and support the whole family. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child – (Enough Food and clean water for their needs) UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1991
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child grants all children and young people (aged 17 and under) a complete set of rights. This legislation was authorized on the 16th December 1991 and it came into force in the UK on 15 January 1992. This legislation ensures that the children and young people’s rights are upheld, giving them the rights to: protection and assistance, access to educational and health services, to develop their personalities and abilities to their fullest potential, live in a happy environment with love and care and understand their rights.
This helps prevent children from being miss treated, abused and neglected from their basic needs and rights, therefore providing them with the support and opportunities that each child/young person should rightfully have. Article 28 “A child’s right to education with access to equal opportunities. ” So as with other children’s laws, schools must take into account culture, different religions, and language barriers so that all children regardless of their ability can be fully included in their setting. http://www. dcsf. gov. uk/everychildmatters/strategy/strategyandgovernance/uncrc/unitednationsconventionontherightsofthechild/ (accessed on)
E4- Describe the recognise principles and values that underpin working with children. Two recognised principles and values that underpin working with children are: The CACHE Statements of values to reflect the early year’s sector’s standards of conduct. The CACHE values are important as they represent the professional way of how professionals and practitioner should work with children, young people and their families. A CACHE value that underpins working with children is, ‘Honour the confidentiality of information relating to the child and their family, unless its disclosure is required by law or is in the best interest of the child. It is by law that the practitioner and professionals follow and sign the Data Protection Act 1998. This is to ensure the protection of personal information and the information stored on a person must not be given out without that person saying so. Also, nor should it be kept for longer than necessary. Whatever is said within a setting stays in a setting in doing so, practitioners must be aware of the information you give out too. For example all documents are kept under lock and key in the staff office and only looked at on a “need to know” basis for example in a case where a child is at risk of abuse.
Keeping the child’s information confidential is to ensure the safety of that child but also, some information for the child must be given to ensure the child’s health is not at risk for example, if that child has an allergy to certain foods or is an asthmatic this information needs to be shared with staff that deal with that child so they can support the child if they have an attack. Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) – ‘A Unique Child’ As a practitioner it is your duty and responsibility to treat each all children in the setting as individuals therefore a ‘Unique Child’.
Children are all different and have different religions, backgrounds, race, and personalities and celebrate different events. The diversity of persons and communities is highly valued and respected. Neither child nor family should be discriminated against. Within many settings there are children who have Special Educational Needs (SEN) and English as an Additional Language (EAL). It is then there when you as a practitioner to ensure that Equality and Diversity is shown. Throughout the setting and ensure that children regardless of ability enjoy a full educational life which will help them take part in society and develop as an individual.
You as a practitioner must also encourage children to recognise their own unique qualities and their characteristics and share them with others. In return, this can help the setting and the children within the setting understand and accept the differences of others and respect them. Also within the schools they are to ensure that children’s needs are being met, by bringing in other professionals to help with the child. Within my setting, a speech and language therapist came in to work with one of the children within my setting because the child has dyspraxia and in doing so she comes every other week.
Being the student practitioner the placement supervisor in my setting let me set one day and observe and learn about what she does with the child so that when she isn’t there I can help and work with her that the child to help them with Specific Mind imperilment, Building Language Develop and Speech Work with Vowels Sounds, using big mouth pictures and other activities. E5- (throughout) E6 – Describe three (3) professional skills that will support your work with children. Member of a team Practitioners must work as a member of a team. Practitioners who work well together make it happy, organised and easy going.
Where team members work together well it is important to ensure that the individuality of children’s needs is being met. Practitioners know the procedure and routines that are to be done within the setting for example, if a staff member is ill or just feeling very poorly, other staff can easily fill in or cover for her knowing the procedures to be taken place. As a practitioner being an effective member of a team is important to make it easy going, share knowledge and information but not only that, but to show and set an example to children of working as a team and making a positive contribution to your setting as good role models.
Communication Skills There are three types of communication verbal non-verbal and written. Practitioners speak to parents with respect no use of jargon or rudeness they may not know childcare as detailed as staff members. If there is any kind of language barriers then an interpreter will be supporting the parent as everyone must be included within the setting. Also, nonverbal communication is gestures for example a smile to greet a parent or child in the morning is important as is the Dress code wearing a uniform to look professional gives a good impression to everyone.
Written communication will be in the forms of letters again these should be bi-lingual and represent all the children’s languages that attend the setting. Communication skills are also relevant to ensure that the children’s safety and security are maintained within their homes and at school. Having the skill to put the child’s needs first It is important that a child’s needs are recognised and prioritised early. Practitioners should be able to empathise with the child in order for the situation to be resolved as it provides understanding and recognition of individual needs of a child.
If a child had a new baby in their family for example and their behaviour changed this could be resolved in the setting if the practitioner used play, in the role play area the child could play with the baby dolls discuss their feelings one to one with the practitioner and the practitioner could encourage the parents to help the child by asking the child to help with changing baby for example to make the child feel important and raise their self-esteem. Also an ethical issue which should be abided with at all times when working with children is confidentiality.
Staff should never gossip about children in front of others information should be kept under “lock and key” in the setting and only available to staff on a “Need to know” basis for example if there was a concern over a child in the practitioners care. Children have many different backgrounds therefore to feel their needs are first the setting should welcome their culture, background and religion and celebrate it. A child who has their background in the setting e. g. Cultural Displays or books that are bi-lingual for children for whom English is an additional language will feel very much valued by the practitioners in the setting.
Interpersonal Skills As a practitioner interpersonal skills is an everyday life skill that we are to use to interact with parents, other practitioners and other professionals. This skill not only includes communicating, but also helps with our self-confidence and the ability to listen and understand. Problem solving, making decisions and personal stress management are also deliberated as interpersonal skills. Being aware of your interpersonal skills can help you improve and develop being more perceived as calm, confident and charismatic. These qualities are often appealing to others.
E7- Three Study Skills that can support you’re learning during training. Time Management As a practitioner it is essential to have good time management skills. In order to be punctual, be a positive role model, meet assignment deadlines, and prepare for an exam or to plan, one must have good time management skills. Developing time management skills is a journey and needs practice and guidance along the way. Time management skills help student practitioners to become aware of how they use their time wisely for example in organizing, prioritizing and succeeding in their studies.
In the setting for example the staff need the trainee students to arrive on time so that they can set them routines or prepare the setting for the children to arrive this gives a good impression to parents, children and colleagues. Research Skills While on placement as a student or practitioner, it is important to have good research skills. In order to do so, you must be able to find good solution or sources needed to find any relevant information. Some sources of information are internet websites, leaflets and journals, libraries, magazines and newspapers, books and museums.
By looking at these forms of information the trainee practitioner can then find out current information on childcare issues especially for assignments. Learning Styles As a practitioner and student, it is important to know that everyone processes information differently and learns individually too. It is important that you notice the way in which you learn and study. These traits are referred to as learning styles. Knowing your learning style can support you when revising or learning for tests. There are three types of learning tyles often used or talked about which are: •Auditory – learn by listening. •Kinaesthetic- learns by moving or doing •Visual- learns by watching As kinaesthetic learner, I process information and knowledge easily by physical sensations and communicate using body languages and gestures. I like to show people how to do something than telling them and enjoys feeling and touching things. D1 – Explain why the practitioner should develop and maintain appropriate relationships with parents and other professionals.
As a practitioner maintaining appropriate relationships with parents, students and other professionals is important. One of the most relevant skills is learning how to stay professional while being friendly. Children Maintaining appropriate relationships with children is crucial often practitioners will get down to a child’s level have eye contact and are approachable. The practitioner needs to build up a close bond with the child but not take over or try to be a parent. The reasons practitioners build a relationship are to build trust and raise a child’s confidence.
It is important to bond with a child so they can discuss anything that is bothering them e. g. not being able to complete work or worrying about a home situation. If the practitioner knows the child is falling behind in their work they can get support from other professionals if needs be such as a child psychologist to ensure that the child reaches their full potential. Ultimately a child needs to be happy in their setting and want to be there so the practitioner should be caring and supportive at all times. Parents Having appropriate relationships with parents is very important.
The term ‘friendly but not friends’, is often used when having professional relationships with parents. “Partnership with parents” is crucial and that is why appropriate relationships are needed to meet the Every Child Matters outcomes/Children Act 2004 by law. Practitioners need to include parents so if they are worried they can discuss issues with the practitioner parents need to feel practitioners consider their needs for example if parents wish their child to be vegetarian due to religious views the setting must make sure this is in place.
Trust is important so staff follows the confidentiality policy and signs this when they start at the setting, if staff “gossip” about parents then trust would not be formed and parents would not share vital information with the practitioners. Often there are coffee mornings open days and parents at the setting who come in to support the children all must have a CRB. Other Professionals Having an appropriate relationship with other professionals is not only by law of the Children Act 2004, but to help the practitioner ensure of the safety policies for children within the setting.
There are many other professionals that help to ensure that children reach their full potential which are translators, speech therapist, psychologist and much more as practitioners are not trained in every area of childcare. Other practitioners come with a range of skills to support children with differing needs they often share skills and knowledge and are able with meetings to discuss and plan for a child with special needs not only with students but with other professionals. Tassoni etal ( 2007 pg. 1) “ “With many services coming together in a multi-agency approach, it is essential that everyone working with children and their families communicates well and understands their roles and responsibilities. ” Respect should be part of this relationship as both the other professional and the practitioner need to work well to meet the needs of the child. The child needs support to be fully included in a setting and their parents are supported to in a “multi-professional” approach to care.
For parents and children to get the best resources and support for aids in the home benefits, or activities within the setting the relationship between the practitioners must be excellent. For example if the practitioner is supported this will give them job satisfaction knowing they can support a child. D2 – Discuss the characteristics of working in a multi-agency team. The term ‘multi-agency’ is when if a child who attends the setting has a disability they may need support this could be numerous professionals may be involved in the supporting of children and their families.
With this type of approach used as support for children and their families, there are lots of benefits. Multi agency meets the needs of and supports individual children to be fully included in their nursery or school work or to support a parent in a stressful family circumstance. Many parents may feel isolated with a child who has special needs. Tassoni etal ( 2007 pg 11) “ In practice, this may mean that parents may be able to leave their children in a nursery while in the same building or nearby they attend a parenting class or take a younger baby to the health clinic. In the setting a parent can have specialist training such as learning English as an additional language while their child is at the setting in the playgroup this then gives parents the chance to seek employment with their new skills. The ‘multi-agency approach’ having another professional is useful to the practitioner in helping children reach their full potential. For example if a speech and language therapist came into the setting they would support a child and the practitioner could pick up ideas to support the child within the setting.
It also helps professionals and practitioners are aware of each other’s role, in supporting families giving job satisfaction communication is important by getting regular meetings or phoning parents to attend this would help support everyone. B – Explain why it is important that practitioners understand the limits and boundaries of their role when working with young children. Two reasons why it is important that practitioners understand the limits and boundaries of their role when working with young children are: Follow Policies and Procedures
Within my setting practitioners should follow policies and procedures to ensure the safety or children because children are vulnerable and their safety is mandatory and conforming to legislation. Not only is it law to ensure the safety of the children but of the staff as well. To ensure the safety of children the “Every Child Matters” outcomes are also necessary to ensure a child’s safety. Some Policies and Procedure that the setting should follow are; •Health and Safety Policy •Equal Opportunities Policy •Safeguarding Policies
To ensure Health and Safety within my setting, at my placement, if a child has bumped their head, the practitioner goes directly and attends to the head bump, apply a cold compress to the head bump, write the accident into the medical or accident book, send a letter home to parents letting them know that their child has had a head bump today and tell the child’s parent to observe the child closely for 48 hours to see if the head bump has changed or worsen. Also if the bump is serious the child must be taken to casualty immediately by a designated staff member.
Also, to ensure equal opportunity in my setting and at my placement, a practitioner should not treat children like they are all the same. They should treat children as a “unique child” and individuals. Therefore the setting will support children regardless of their background ability or culture and celebrate Diversity in displays in activities for example if there is a language barrier an interpreter would be needed for the child to translate no child should be disadvantaged because of their language. Conforming to Legislation Every setting should follow all childcare legislation including policies and procedures.
When every member of staff starts at the setting they need to be made aware of the codes of practice. Within the setting, there is a code of practice that is a document with professional standards that the employee should meet which are: •keeping confidentiality •Dress code •arriving on time •Health and safety e. g. washing hands –being a good role model. When I started at my setting, I had to find out about a number of policies and procedure like health and safety, equal opportunities, and safe guarding so I knew what I had to do if anything happened.
At my placement, to ensure safe guarding, if anything has happened to the child that is deemed the child is at risk, the safe guarding person should be contacted immediately. Also, for persons coming within my setting to work with children they should have a CRB Check, doors codes and most importantly practitioners should know who picks a child up at the end of the day for example who has “Parental Responsibility” Children Act 1989 /2004. Schools should know which parent has parental rights or parental responsibility to ensure the child’s safety.
If someone else is picking up a child the parents must inform the setting of this and state who is coming and they have a code to collect the child. This is part of safeguarding the child and makes sure no child is put at risk. Tassoni etal (2007 pg 100) “Every setting will have a child protection policy. You will need to find out whether you need to wear a badge, how to sign in and also in what situations you may work with children. ” C – Explain why the early year’s practitioner should listen to children’s views and value their opinions. Self Esteem
Once a child has established what they think they are like, they then consider whether they are happy with the result. Having a high self-esteem is being happy about your where as having a low self-esteem one can feel as if they are not measuring up. As a practitioner you should always encourage and promote high self-esteem. Ways in which you can do so are by giving a child one to one help, praising them and most importantly listening to a child who isn’t happy and also, take time to support them. We can also do this by taking a child into another room, using a persona doll or just doing special activities with everyone in the class.
Trust Children and young people must feel as if they can trust you as a practitioner. For young people, trust means knowing that someone believes you and is also approachable. As a practitioner children often need to build a close bonding relationship with you so the child can express their feelings and concerns with you so that the practitioner can help to or make them feel better. Culture It is relevant that not only are a child’s needs are met, but that their customs and wishes are fit of the parents. As a practitioner you are to be aware of that all children come from different backgrounds.
The celebrating of different religions and events from different backgrounds should be celebrated within your setting to promote equality and diversity. As a result, children will have different views and opinions and needs within the setting for example, in a Muslim’s religion, they don’t eat pork. As a practitioner you will need to make sure that they don’t eat pork but offer an alternative menu. Involving a child’s culture or religion within the setting with doing certain activities a child will feel the practitioner valuing their parent’s culture or religion and they will feel valued too because of this. Child Protection
Within every setting there is a child protection policy. As a practitioner it is relevant to be aware of how to keep children within the setting safe. By law (Children Act 1989) practitioners should work with partnership with other professionals and parents to keep children safe and ensure that they achieve their full potential. In keeping child safe, you would have to keep them from abuse. Children within the setting often tell practitioners things that may raise concerns and you may have to relate it back to the Safe-guarding officer at the school but to ensure that you keep the children aware of what is going on.
As a practitioner you are not allowed at some setting to be alone in a setting with a child for not only are you protecting the child, but you are protecting yourself as well. Some ways in which we can protect children within the setting are: * Having visitors sign in and out of the setting * Avoid physical contact with children * Looking around the placement before break time for any dangers within the setting * Knowing who picks up the child at the end of the day.
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