In this practical, we are making hand-on measuring on length and comprehensiveness of the topic. By mensurating the length and comprehensiveness, it will enable us to gauge the organic structure frame and organic structure composing of the topic. For illustration, biepicondylar humerus ( elbow comprehensiveness ) is a good step of frame size and skeletal dimensions. It is less affected by adiposeness comparison to other anthropometric dimension and it is besides extremely associated with musculus size and thin organic structure mass. Beside that, length and breadth step can besides assist jocks to find the best organic structure composing for public presentation. For illustration, a swimmer may necessitate larger biacromial measuring to execute good in his athletics. Other than that, length and breadth step can besides utilize to supervise the growing and development of kid.
The challenges we face in executing the measuring include trouble in landmarking. For illustration, as an inexperient pupil, we found trouble in placing the acromiale particularly in feeling the spinal column of the shoulder blade. Besides, we besides find trouble in mensurating the biepicondylar thighbone as we have difficulty in placing the sites of the epicondyles due to the midst hypodermic bed below the tegument. Furthermore, during the practical, while we use the anthropometer or calliper to use force per unit area to compact the overlying tissue in order to obtain a more accurate reading, the calliper will be given to skid off from the site of the landmark. This job particularly occur in mensurating biacromial and biepicondylar thighbone.
The consequences of organic structure fat and musculus mass got from computations and utilizing bioelectrical electric resistance analysis ( BIA ) are different. By computation, the organic structure fat and musculus mass obtained are 21.1 % and 78.9 % severally. Whereas for BIA, the organic structure fat and musculus mass obtained are 25.6 % and 74.4 % severally by utilizing manus held machine and 28.9 % and 71.1 % severally by utilizing 4-point machine. There is difference of consequence for organic structure fat and musculus mass from computations and utilizing BIA. This is because consequence of organic structure fat and musculus mass from computation are utilizing skinfold thickness measuring. During the measuring of skinfold thickness, there may hold some intra-measurer mistake from site of landmarking and measuring, skinfold squeezability, variableness between readings and besides technique of utilizing the equipment. Whereas by utilizing BIA machine, less proficient mistake will happen as we merely identify in information such as age, gender, tallness and weight to acquire the per centum of organic structure fat. Therefore, computation of organic structure composing utilizing BIA machine have higher preciseness.
The organic structure fat and musculus mass obtained are 25.55 % and 74.45 % severally by utilizing manus held machine and 28.95 % and 71.05 % severally by utilizing 4-point machine. There is a difference of consequence between manus held machine and 4-point machine as manus held machine merely has 2-point electrodes directing electric current to the organic structure while 4-point machine has 4-point electrodes directing electric current which is more accurate in gauging organic structure composing. Harmonizing to the Recommended Percent Body Fat Cut-off Points for Adult Individual ( 18 old ages and above ) , the per centum of organic structure fat obtained from both machine is still within the acceptable ( upper terminal ) .
Skinfold measuring is easy to make one time accomplishment has been mastered. In general, combination of skinfold measuring provides a more valid appraisal of organic structure fat content and can bespeak the distribution of hypodermic fat. It does non necessitate much clip as consequence can be produced instantly. It is besides a noninvasive method for step organic structure fat and musculus mass. The equipment used for illustration harpender, slender usher and Lange are cheap and portable comparison to other machine for mensurating per centum organic structure fat such as double energy X ray and plethymography. The restriction may include big technician mistake from site of landmarking and measuring, skinfold squeezability and besides technique of utilizing the equipment. For illustration, some of the finger-thumb pinch or caliper arrangement during measurement may be excessively deep ( musculus ) or excessively superficial ( tegument ) . Another illustration is mid-arm point is falsely measured or marked. Besides, skinfold thickness may besides impact by factor other than sum of fat, for illustration exercising, hydrops, dermatitis which will increase the skin thickness and besides desiccation which will diminish the skinfold thickness. It may non besides be an ideal measuring for those who are corpulent and really thin.
Bioelectrical electric resistance analysis ( BIA ) is non-invasive, particularly compared to the hydrostatic deliberation and skinfold calliper method. It besides give a good appraisal of organic structure fat per centum. It is besides speedy and easy to utilize in the field by merely key in information such as age, gender, tallness and weight to acquire the per centum of organic structure fat of the topic. The machine is besides low in cost and portable to convey to anyplace compare to other machine for mensurating per centum organic structure fat such as double energy X ray and plethymography. The restriction of BIA is that BIA is hydration-dependent. To guarantee accurate organic structure unstable consequences, the topic should non exert or execute any vigorous activity for at least 8 hours. Besides, the topic should non devour drinks such as caffeine or intoxicant in big measures 12 hours before the trial as these drinks are water pills. The status of the topic such as desiccation, hydrops, fed or fast province will besides impact the consequence. For a particular status that patient has an automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator ( AICD ) , so BIA should non be done.
Waist and hip perimeters can utilize to cipher waist to hip ratio ( waist perimeters divided by hip perimeters ) . The waist to hip ratio is a utile method to separate blubber between abdominal country and lower organic structure country. Lower organic structure fleshiness is frequently referred to as “ gynoid fleshiness ” as it is more typical to female while abdominal fleshiness is called “ android fleshiness ” which is more common among male. Whereas corpulent work forces and adult females can be classified into either group without refering about their sex. The hypodermic fat which is the external fat are mostly found in lower bole while the splanchnic fat which is the internal fat are chiefly found in abdominal country. Deposition of extra fat in the venters as a proportion of entire organic structure fat is strongly associated with increased hazard of developing certain metabolic upsets and obesity-related disease such as hyperinsulinemia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, lipemia, high blood pressure, coronary bosom disease and others. This sort of fleshiness realted diseases are more likely to be associated with an abdominal fleshiness than a lower organic structure fleshiness. Apart from that, persons with higher waist and hip perimeter will be higher in entire organic structure fat mass. Therefore, beside BMI, waist and hip perimeter should besides be consider every bit good when determinining whether an person is healthy or non. This is because if an person has a normal BMI, but have waist perimeters or waist and hip ratio greater than the acceptable scope, the person is still holding hazard of developing obesity-related disease and metabolic upsets.
The % of TEM calculated from skinfold measuring: triceps, subscapular, biceps, and suprailiac are 2.3 % , 3.6 % , 4.2 % , and 1.9 % severally. The values are still acceptable as compared to the mark TEM. Calculations of TEM are needed in skinfold measuring due to skinfolds are notoriously imprecise and both within and between tester mistake can be big. In this practical, due to single work, within tester mistake will be the chief concerned. Poor preciseness frequently reflects within tester mistake ensuing from unequal preparation, instrument mistake and trouble in doing the measuring.
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