As some anomalies are hardly explained by the traditional finance, the behaviour finance is introduced. It was first introduced by Kahneman and Tversky (1979), which they presented the prospect theory. In fact, investors’ behaviour often violates the expected utility theory, some of them trade irrrationally. Then Shefrin and Statman (1994) base on the CAPM, and put investor sentiment into the model to make the BAPM. They thought noise traders and information traders would interact and influenced the price setting, including the noise traders’ behaviour in the BAPM let the asset pricing more precise. Another important theory is the behavioral portfolio theory. The theory states that when investors choose portfolios, they on the one hand want to be security, while on the other hand they potentially also want to reach aspiration levels. So it lets BPT investors to choose bonds and lottery tickets together come true. According to these phenomenon which happen to investors’ portfolio selection, many researchers give their explaination. Generally speaking, bahaviour finance is based on two theories, which is limits of arbitrage and investor sentiment. DSSW model is based on the former theory while BSW model, DHS model and HS model are based on the latter one. There are also some more models in the behaviour finance area. These models can explain some anomalies, such as Closed-end fund puzzle and the equity premium puzzle. In this paper these two anomalies would be treated as examples to explain how behaviour finance explain these anomalies.
The modern finance theory is based on the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Markowitz’s Portfolio Theory, Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT). The model CAPM is introduced by Sharpe (1964), Lintner (1965), and Black (1972). It provides the pricing mechanism of capital assets and the decision factor of risk is?(the relationship between firm returns and market returns). These theories are based on the Efficiency market hypothesis (EMH) and the CAPM can be used to test the EMH.
While its analysis framework confined within the scope of rational analysis, when more and more anomalies arise in the market, they are hard to be explained by standard finance which is based on the EMH. In this situation, the questioning of modern finance beginned when the prospect theory is introduced by Kahneman and Tversky (1979). And then the behavioural finance is introduced to explain these snomalies. The definition of behavioural finance is that
“Behavioural finance- that is, finance from a broader social science perspective including psychology and sociology- is now one of the most vital research programs, and it stands in sharp contradiction to much of efficient markets theory.” (Shiller, 2003 p83)
It is a Marginal subject and opposite to the traditional finance, and it tries to explain the importance of investors’ emotion and mental mistakes, which would influence their decision-making process (Ricciardi and Simon, 2000). At first, behaviour finance is marginalized as “ anomalies literature” (Frankfurter and McGoun, 2000).it has been researched for a long time, and then it has been accepted after more and more journals focusing on the discussion of anomalies.
Section 2 of the paper explains three main theories of behaviour finance, which are prospect theory, behavioural capital asset pricing theory and behavioral portfolio theory. Section 3 presents some models which provided by the behaviour finance. Section 4 discusses the application of behaviour finance to explain anomalies. Section 6 concludes.
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