Stonehenge is a set of earthworks and an ancient memorial located in Wiltshire, England. It is considered the most celebrated and visited site in the universe and is one of the enigmas in the universe which has ne’er been revealed. However, many people have created legion myths and fabrications to explicate enigmas behind it. Despite the legion myths and fabrications, there has been limited information sing Stonehenge ‘s creation/development. Most research workers and theoreticians refer to it as a rock memorial, a elephantine or ancient megalith.
Archeologist Mike Parker Pearson has proposed a figure of hypothesis sing Stonehenge and its surrounding. He indicated that Stonehenge was used as a burial land from historical beginnings. In other words, Stonehenge represented a topographic point of the dead. The cremated remains found at the site acted as grounds and they indicated that entombments took topographic point at the site every bit early as 3000 BC ( Gargen 112 ) . Mike Pearson farther indicated that the arrangement of artefacts and Gravess around Stonehenge provided good grounds that the site was reserved as a sphere of the dead. New carbon 14 day of the months of human remains dug from the ancient Stonehenge in Southwest England indicate that the memorial was used as a graveyard.
Initially, archaeologists had believed that Stonehenge had acted as burial evidences every bit early as 2700 and 2600 BC ( Gargen 114 ) . Peoples buried at Stonehenge were believed to hold been the elite of the environing society ; an early royal British dynasty. This hypothesis appears to be scientific due to the grounds provided by new wireless C day of the months of homo remains found in the memorial.
Parker Pearson besides held the hypotheses that Stonehenge was a Centre for ascendant worship that was connected by River Avon and two other ceremonial avenues to a duplicate wooden circle near Durrington Walls. The ground as to why he held the hypotheses is due to the big colonies of houses found nearby Stonehenge. This reinforced his belief that both the colony and Stonehenge created a portion of a big ancient ceremony composite. He went in front and indicated that the two circles with lasting and impermanent constructions made a clear representation of the life and the dead spheres severally. He besides pointed out that the orientation of the rock circle pointed to sunrise and sunset on cardinal seasonal day of the months which clearly indicated it was a topographic point of ceremonial.
On his hypotheses, Mike Pearson stated that Stonehenge was non a memorial in isolation ; instead it was really one of a brace connoting that it was made of both rock and lumber. The theory behind this is that Stonehenge is a type of spirit place to the ascendants. This hypothesis appears to be pseudo-scientific since there is no scientific grounds behind it.
Gargen, Josphath. Theories behind Stonehenge. 2nd erectile dysfunction. New York: New York Press, 2003.
ANTH 160 – Section 02
SJSU – Fall 2009
2 B )Describe the basic cultural characteristics and development of the Mound edifice Cultures of Eastern North America ( and particularly separating between the Woodland and Mississippian Cultures ) , and explain why they were attributed to a ‘lost race ‘ by 19th century bookmans.
It is believed that mold builders were greatly involved in edifice of Earth plants every bit good as hills. The ceremonial and burial constructions were characteristically level topped pyramids or level topped cones and at some times a assortment of other signifiers. Some hills took after unusual forms such as the study of cosmologically important animate beings and were branded effigy hills name. Monk ‘s hill is one of the best known level topped pyramidal earthen ware at Cahokia, while Serpent hill found in southern Ohio is 5 pess tall, 1330 pess long and 20 pess broad takes the form of a snake ( Ian 86 ) . The hill builders included legion different tribal groups and chiefdoms that held unto a perplexing aggregation of beliefs and sole civilizations which were united together by the shared architectural pattern of hill building. The initial mold edifice was an early marker of merely get downing political and societal complexness among the civilizations in the Eastern United States.
Woodlands civilization: a prehistoric civilization of eastern North America dates back in the first century. It is used to mention to Native American societies remaining in eastern United States. Adena and Hopewell were the earliest forest groups who inhabited Mississippi river vales and Ohio between 800 BC and 800 AD. Adena and Hopewell are normally known for their monolithic entombment hills, frequently modified with finely crafted sedate points. Initially, Adena were huntsmans and gatherers while Hopewell lived in small towns.
The Mississippian civilization was developed around 700 A.D. It was developed by a population of husbandmans who practiced agricultural agriculture and deep-rooted harvests such as maizes, beans and squash. They besides engaged in a twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours runing. Mississippian civilization was ab initio a hill edifice Native American civilization. However, from about 800 CE to 1500 CE, it greatly flourished in what is normally known as Eastern, Midwestern and Southeastern United States ( Ian 76 ) .
Mississippian civilization is considered different from the forest civilization on the footing that the Mississippian hills appear to be rectangular or square, big, level topped, mesa like platforms on which temples or houses were built. On the other manus, the forest hills are conelike, earthen constructions covering entombments in which wonderfully carved stone pipes and isinglass cutouts that are found along with skeletal remains. In add-on, burial hills were dominant during the forest period ( 100 B.C. to 400 A.D. ) , while temple hills predominated during the Mississippian period ( 1000 AD ) .
Both Mississippian and forest civilizations were attributed to as a ‘lost race ‘ by the nineteenth century bookmans due to the fact that the new euro-American colonists were non willing to accept the fact that the hills had been built by the Native American Peoples. They were hence displacing and destructing most of the hills so as to plough away grounds. Consequently, the civilizations came along as a lost race in America.
Ian, Bridgeston. The Mould Building Cultures. California: Anvil Press, 2000.
ANTH 160 – Section 02
SJSU – Fall 2009
3B )Describe the history of Easter Island as it has been reconstructed by archeologists ; is this history a utile metaphor for the Earth? Is it similar or different from what happened in to other civilisations, and what can be learned from analyzing it?
Easter Island, besides known as Rapa Nui is one of the universes celebrated but least visited archaeological sites located in the Pacific Ocean. The island is largely celebrated due to its 887 bing monumental statues( moai )which were created by Rapanui people. It is a bantam, presently treeless, hilly Island of volcanic nature ; lifting over 10,00ft from the floor of Pacific Ocean. Peterson ( 23 ) , states that Easter Island is among the youngest inhabited districts in the universe, and a larger portion of its history is that it was one of the most stray inhabited district.
Easter Island was discovered three hundred old ages ago by European adventurers amidst the big infinite in South Pacific Ocean. Dutch adventurer, Jacob Roggeveen rediscovered it on Easter twenty-four hours in 1722, therefore the acquisition of its name ; Easter Island. During that clip, the Island was inhabited by a public of Polynesian beginning who had arrived from Marquesas Islands many centuries earlier. This has been proven by the Deoxyribonucleic acid extracts that were collected from the location. It is besides believed that the dwellers had come in with assorted workss, nutrients, tools and animate beings such as bananas, Sweet murphies, sugar cane, hogs, and poulets among others so as to get down a new life.
Archeologists hold that there were three civilizations which lived on Easter Island around 400 AD. During this clip, the island was inhabited by people who specialized in doing little rock statues. After some clip, another civilisation broke down the statues and greatly used them to build long temple platforms known as ahus. They besides carved 600 plus tremendous rock flops taking the signifier of human existences and placed them on the ahus. It is believed that about 15 statues are still held by some ahus.
Archaeological grounds indicates a fast devastation of the woods within a few centuries after the reaching of human existences. This played a major function in the decrease of woods and plantation in the island. The society played a function in the decrease of woods and plantations since they cleared land to works grasses, cut down trees to build canoes, they had besides come in with rats which devoured the seeds. By the terminal of 15th century, the full wood had disappeared, the fruits had died out and tree species were nonextant. The extinction of the animate beings in the Island was every bit thorough as that of the forest. All species of native land birds became nonextant and the shellfish were exploited. This led to the prostration of Easter Island ‘s society.
The history of Easter Island is a utile metaphor of the planet Earth. The lesson obtained from Easter Island was that inequality and scarceness of important resources played a great function in happening of race murder. Consequently, a societal prostration of the society life in the island took topographic point. David ( 43 ) , states that during the seventh century, around 50 people arrived on Easter Island and increased to more than 70,000 by seventeenth century.
David, Myer. The history of Easter Island. 3rd erectile dysfunction. Cambridge: Cambridge Press.
ANTH 160 – Section 02
SJSU – Fall 2009
4 ) Stonehenge as an ancient Centre of mending
This appears to be an interesting subject since Stonehenge is normally known as a burial site among the archaeologists. However, Tim Darvil and Geoff Wainwright have come up with the grounds that the memorial acted as a Centre of mending. Margaret ( 57 ) , states that monolithic Numberss of Britons flocked at the sight with the purpose of bring arounding their diseases and mending present hurts. Many dwellers believed that the rock found at the site had charming and mending qualities which greatly attracted legion pilgrims to the site.
A adult male ‘s Remains at about five stat mis from Stonehenge were discovered by the two archaeologists. The remains collected indicated that the adult male had a knee cap infection and a terrible tooth eruption. This was hence used as strong grounds by the two archaeologists and they came up with the theory that the adult male may hold died on his manner to the mending evidences ( Stonehenge ) .
In add-on, a skeleton analysis which was found three stat mis from the memorial indicated that the adult male had travelled a long distance and was enduring from a potentially deathly dental disease. It was hence concluded that he had travelled that long distance as a manner of seeking for the rocks associated with the mending power. Most archaeologists remain inexorable that the site and the environing country were majorly used as a burial land.
To endorse their healing hypothesis, Darvill and Wainwright studied the bluish rocks found at the site and which were believed to hold been at that place since 2400 BC and 2200 BC. Having studied 14 samples of organic stuff such as the bone in the trench and carbonized works remains, they indicated that it was good grounds that the evidences provided first-class mending evidences to the community.
The blue rock survey undermines the chief theory suggested by Mike Parker Pearson that the memorial acted chiefly as burial evidences and hereditary site where people held ceremonials and offered forfeits to the ascendants. Other important finds from the excavation have been made at the memorial. A series of little rocks broken down from the larger standing 1s were discovered and the archaeologists believed that the rocks were used as lucky appeals. This provided the grounds that the ancient people believed in the healing belongingss of the rocks.
The archaeologists besides believed that the bluish rocks had legion healing belongingss since there were a figure of sacred springs in Preseli which were considered to hold wellness giving qualities. The two archaeologists besides quoted the twelfth century Monk indicating that the rocks were thought to hold medicative belongings. The grounds uncovered by their digs portrayed that people were come offing and traveling off pieces of the bluestones through the Roman epoch through the in-between ages. In relation to the finds made refering Stonehenge, it can be concluded that Stonehenge is a popular and powerful topographic point of pilgrim’s journey. However, there is no support that the memorial ‘s mending power truly worked.
Margaret, Katherine. The enigma behind Stonehenge. Harvard: Harvard Press, 2002.
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