Gatekeeping is managing the information through a process, which contain to move the information through gates or filters. The gatekeeping process includes selecting, writing, editing, placing, scheduling and ect. Moreover, there are different communication types such as dissemination, broadcasting, and the Internet. Gatekeeping theory establish in communication studies, journalism, political science, and sociology fields. Every person can practice gatekeeping Individually in daily life for example, the information you post in the blog or the email you send.
Talking about broadcasting gatekeeping, the broadcast TV channels that are available free on air for the consumers the television has no main gate in this case where the consumer is free to watch any channel. However, the in the pay TV case the television receiver is the main gate. Thus, the gatekeeping is the pay TV where there is an access to the programs. “The clear differences between Pay-TV and free-to-air TV may become blurred with the introduction of hybrid television receivers that have both digital broadcast and broadband connections”. Referring to the previous gatekeeping TV example that shows the controls of machine and how is the gate keeping is not one-way process.
Another example of gatekeeping is the journalist in term of choosing the news that will be published in the newspaper, or which photo will be in the cover page of a magazine. Moreover, gatekeeping includes many types such as venture capital firms, exhibition and museum curators, journal and magazine editorial committees, and others.
Gatekeeping has known as the most easily reached theories as well as the most continuing research in mass communication. Throw the gatekeeping theory the professionals of the journalist role can been seen as their ideas which means, “core belief systems of journalists”.
Within contributing in the mass communication theory. The first use of “gatekeeping” term was in 1947 by Kurt Lewin, psychologist. His studies focused on how a person behavior changed when they are connected with a group of people. The conclusions from his studies is the two points below:
1. “The “unfreeze – change – refreeze” approach used by parents and managers to modify behavior of their charges.”
2. “The theory of gatekeeping.”
Followed by, the first publication was a theory of gatekeeping, which “describe a wife or mother as the person who decides which foods end up on the family’s dinner table”. His example was to demonstrate how one person could change a population’s food habit. During the period (1917- 1993) David Manning White studies with Lewin the mass communication research. White has been working on the editorial copy of The Peoria Star in 1947, he also worked as a wire editor to the newspaper by choosing the published stories. Following, “Lewin’s theory posited in the 1947 Social Forces article; the result was what Journalism Quarterly called “one of the first studies of its kind in gatekeeping”. The main objective of theory is to understand the positive and the negative services that the gates contain.
As a result of the succeeding of gatekeeping theory, the researchers worked in improving the previously theory. Realizing that gatekeepers control the knowledge of a community and that by passing or keeping the information from or to the community. Afterward, different direction has been taken in1970s by McCombs and Shaw where they looked to the effects of the gatekeeping.
The individual elements of the gatekeeping theory model “the channel, the message, the (internal and external) forces on the gatekeeper, the gatekeeper as an individual or as a group, and the feedback”.
Recently the gatekeeping theory researches keep on improving as the Internet arrived as a mass communication resource. The studies demonstrate four news gates, which are the news organization, the economic, and the newsgathering technology. Abbreviation, the process of gatekeeping study has included facts and knowledge and give the applicability of news influence model.
Example of a strong gatekeeping
The gatekeepers have not been disappearance but actually it has been changed with a new type of gatekeeping. Talking about gatekeeping and how it is strong an example of it is in the new media. “YouTube and the other video sharing services have their own gatekeeping rules about what can go on the site, how it can be shared, how it makes it to the front page, etc”. The videos lovers and popularity is rising to the top and that because of an alternative part of gatekeeping that the social networks serve.
Example of a weak gatekeeping
What if there were no gatekeeping in the media“ With most of the gatekeepers’ influence gone, so it gets harder and harder to tell who is for real and who isn’t,” says, Tim Berry a blogger. In the beginning of the media starting publishing your books or articles you need to convince editors, which needs an experience in dealing with gatekeepers. With the new media were there are no gatekeeping or less gatekeeping there we “see smart hard-working people rising fast without having to wait for grey hair and gatekeepers”. So people are getting money and making social media as their business, yet if their information and knowledge are real or not.
In summary, Gatekeeping is a process of how information moves from source to receiver. The gatekeeping studies is the process that forces operating on more than individuals levels, also the routine level play a important role in the decision of journalistic making. When gatekeepers possess have values such as transparency and honesty the result is targeted information, otherwise gatekeeping is used for personal gain.
Berry, Tim. “A New World of Experts without Gatekeepers.” Up and Running. N.p., 19 Jan. 2011. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. .
Cassidy, William P. “Gatekeeping Similar for Online, Print Journalists.” Newspaper Research Journal 27.2 (2006): n. pag. PDF file.
“Gatekeeping (communication).” Wikipedia. N.p., 22 Jan. 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2011. .
Hynes’s, Aldon. “Social Network Media Gatekeeping.” Orient Lodge. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2011. .
Looms, Peter Olaf. “Who Chooses the NewsGatekeeping and Digital Media.” Rthk. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. .
Roberts, Chris. “Gatekeeping Theory: An Evolution.” Gatekeeping: n. pag. PDF file.
– -. “Gatekeeping theory: An evolution.” Gatekeeping : n. pag. PDF file.
Shoemaker, Pamela J., and TIM P. Vod. Gatekeeping Theory. 2009. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2009. Google Book Search. Web. 17 Apr. 2011. .
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