Syllabus design is an built-in portion of English linguistic communication instruction and as instructors seek develop linguistic communication proficiency in 2nd linguistic communication scholars they are expected to make constructions of larning which will enable the accomplishment of this enterprise. As such, this essay provides a justification for a course of study designed to be used in learning speech production and pronunciation to Libyan secondary pupils with Arabic as their first linguistic communication. Ideally, the syllabus marks to decide speech production and pronunciation jobs experienced by English linguistic communication scholars of Arabic descent. More frequently than non, Libyan and Arabic speech production pupils are merely exposed to larning English through formal instructions as explained by Rabab’ah ( 2003:181 ) . Following this, they are unable to to the full foster their speech production and pronunciation accomplishments which are best acquired through synergistic and communicative acquisition. As a consequence of the differences which are present between English and Arabic pronunciation, most of these scholars experiences jobs related to emphasis and modulation. However, the greatest hard present amongst Arabic scholars of English is their incapacity to pass on fluently and proficiently in English. It therefore becomes rather important to turn to these jobs by explicating an effectual course of study.
The speech production and pronunciation course of study is hence aimed at developing English linguistic communication proficiency and particularly with focal point at developing expert eloquence which as asserted by Chambers ( 1997:536 ) , is the chief index of communicative proficiency. This purpose will at the terminal facilitate communicative and matter-of-fact competences which will let scholars to use the English linguistic communication suitably in their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours interactions. The scholars targeted by this course of study have shown great enthusiasm for the acquisition of English speech production and pronunciation. Their motive is fuelled by the demand to interact and pass on with English talking tourers who usually frequent Libya. The scholars who are aged between 16 to 17 old ages possess limited capacities in speech production and pronunciation accomplishments as indicated by a nosologies trials carried out prior to the designing of the course of study. At the pre-intermediate degree, this course of study is ideal for them.
Organization and Description of the Syllabus
The course of study which focuses on developing speech production and pronunciation accomplishments is comprised of a sum of 12 Sessionss with each session amounting to one hr. As such, scholars will hold a sum of 12 hours of contact. There will be 16 Libyan scholars go toing the Sessionss at a linguistic communication centre located in Tripoli. The course of study is organized in such a manner as to reflect the subject, speech production and pronunciation focal point and the speech production activities for every session. In the first unit of the course of study the chief focal point is on talking where scholars will larn how to do questions and besides give information. In making so, they will besides integrate this in larning the pronunciation of long vowel sounds. The 2nd unit follows the same guidelines but the speech production focal point is directed towards speaking about others in a conversation while at the same clip familiarising oneself with the pronunciation of the shwa sound.
While the speech production focal point for most Sessionss revolves around doing questions, giving information, doing remarks and explicating descriptions, pronunciation ‘s focal point is at groking the usage of vowels and consonants. Unit 6 utilizes descriptive undertakings in larning the usage of consonants /s/z/iz. Other elements of pronunciation are besides addressed with Unit 3 learning scholars how to associate words and sounds in sentences. Unit 4 marks to learn contracted address signifiers. Other phonological constituents such as modulation, falling and raising modulation are tackled in Unit 7. Word emphasis which is an of import facet of pronunciation is taught in Unit 8. Unit of measurements 11 and 12 accommodate assimilation and the pronunciation of the [ -ed ] signifier severally. The course of study ideally reflects its aims by supplying speech production activities for each session which are meant to supply scholars with an synergistic environment for tackling their speech production accomplishments. Evident in the course of study is the usage of synergistic activities throughout all Sessionss. These activities include pair work, function drama, treatments, group work, questionnaires and games. These activities fit the purpose of the course of study as they will give scholars ample pattern on their English communicating, speech production and pronunciation accomplishments.
The sample lesson program for Unit 4 clearly indicates learning processs for this scholar centered course of study. Since the chief focal point is to transfuse talking accomplishments to scholars, the instructor is expected to use instruction methodological analysiss which mostly focus on the scholar ‘s acquisition demands. Indeed, functional purpose of the lesson is to enable scholars to seek and give information utilizing telephone devices while the phonological aims include larning how to use contracted address suitably. As indicated by Nunan ( 1998:26 ) , such a scholar centered course of studies can be implemented efficaciously by integrating ample communicative and synergistic undertakings. This is observed in the lesson program as scholars are invariably asked inquiries by the instructor ; they are besides involved in synergistic group work where they pattern colloquial accomplishments. The lesson program is besides realistic and made more effectual by the instructor ‘s usage function drama undertakings and the usage of familiar content such as the engagement of hotels frequently done by tourers with whom these scholars would desire to interact with. In general, scholars will hold acquired equal speech production accomplishments which they can use in their day-to-day interactions with other English talkers. Talking besides accommodates the formation of relationships with others and the Libyan scholars will make so during their extremely synergistic speech production and pronunciation lesson.
Follow up is an of import facet of instruction and acquisition. From the lesson programs guided by the course of study, scholars ‘ apprehension of the content is evaluated by the instructor during the assorted lessons. For case in Unit 4, scholars are expected to transport out group function drama undertakings as they examine their capacity to inquire and give information. The instructor ‘s function in this activity as in all other lesson activities is to interact with the scholars and point out countries which need rectifying. Oral accomplishments are likely to attest with the usage of such synergistic and prosecuting follow up activities as indicated in the course of study.
Theoretical Justification of the Syllabus
It is quite cardinal in the designing of such a course of study to organize a theoretical footing for its content. This factor provides intent for the course of study and besides provides a nexus between its design and pattern. This course of study chiefly targets the Libyan pupils ‘ capablenesss to pass on efficaciously with other English speech production persons. As such, the course of study must concentrate on bettering eloquence, rightness and intelligibility in their usage of the linguistic communication. Contrary to old aims of larning speech production and pronunciation which was to derive native like speech pattern, current purposes of larning pronunciation focal points on deriving intelligibility as observed by Tarone ( 2005 ) . It is therefore critical to see the rules of the communicative attack of linguistic communication larning utilised as a footing for the course of study. In this attack, the focal point is chiefly on communicating and the content being taught depends on the scholar ‘s demands. Since the Arabic speech production Libyan learners seek to go better communicators, the course of study has accommodated legion speech production and synergistic undertakings and chances.
Libyan scholars are observed to hold troubles in articulating [ -ed ] signifiers and besides the plural signifiers /s/z/iz. Following this analysis, it is important for the course of study to integrate communicative chances for them to pattern the pronunciation of these sounds. Indeed as Brinton, Goodwin and Celce-Murcia ( 1996:8 ) assert that such methodological analysiss like listening and copying and phonic preparation are rather effectual in learning pronunciation. These techniques are reflected in the course of study as scholars are encouraged to accommodate the instructor ‘s competent pronunciation by copying and so practising pronunciations during the lesson activities. In add-on, Libyan scholars will profit amply from the interactive linguistic communication they will larn whose accent as described by Richards ( 1990 ) is to let the creative activity of positive interactions between persons and this is reflected in the course of study as it focus on subjects aimed at leting scholars to do little talk, questions, give regards and do new brushs.
The above communicative attack which has been used in the course of study incorporates undertakings which will enable scholars to incorporate both eloquence and truth in their speech production. Indeed as postulated by Ellis ( 2003 ) , the usage of such undertakings like descriptions and narrations which are dominant in the course of study non merely allows scholars to pattern linguistic communication usage but besides sums to complex and accurate usage of the linguistic communication. Talking truth is besides said to emerge from the usage of unwritten communicating undertakings as described by Lynch ( 2007:317 ) who argues that when scholars cooperate in placing their speech production mistakes and rectifying them they are able to derive assurance in the mark linguistic communication and even strive to talk the linguistic communication suitably. This factor implies that as Libyan scholars who experience troubles in utilizing contracted address will happen it helpful to engaged in undertakings which encourage both the scholars and the instructor to rectify their mistakes and besides steer them towards avoiding the unneeded usage of long words and sentences.
The Syllabus and Pragmatic Competence
The mark of the course of study is non merely to develop communicative competency in scholars but besides matter-of-fact competency. Matter-of-fact competency trades chiefly on the utterance degree of linguistic communication and with factors which allow native talkers to use the mark linguistic communication in societal interactions uninhibited. Harmonizing to Rueda ( 2006: 170 ) there are many facets of matter-of-fact competency which can be facilitated during schoolroom direction which means that the course of study needs to actively integrate such sole instructions. For scholars to derive this signifier of competency, they must possess the ability use the mark linguistic communication for different intents. Besides, scholars must get the ability to grok a talker ‘s purposes and have a bid of the linguistic communication regulations utilized in making signifiers of discourse. Explicit direction in the instruction of English to the Arabic speech production pupils is rather necessary. Such direction is expected to expose scholars to the accurate English linguistic communication input as observed in the course of study where scholars are provided with relevant speech production and pronunciation contents. Besides as seen in the course of study, it is important to make chances for the pattern of the matter-of-fact cognition that scholars have acquired during the learning procedure.
Arabic talking scholars frequently experience jobs in understanding intended significances in discourse chiefly because they are unable to hold on the usage and significances of modulation and word emphasis. Harmonizing to Smith and Swan ( 2001:198 ) the unpredictable nature of English word emphasis eludes most Arabic talkers and instructors need to fit them with accomplishments for observing alterations in significances brought approximately by English word emphasis. As this is important to deriving matter-of-fact competency, the course of study has incorporated these facets as scholars engage in larning undertakings which enable them to separate between falling and raising modulation and the several implied significances. Chapman ( 2007:10 ) points out that the instruction of modulation in an synergistic environment will let scholars to understand how native talkers of English construe them.
While trying to learn the Libyan pupils English and promote matter-of-fact competency, it is of import to see the function of top- down and bottom-up abilities. In order to accomplish the acquisition of these accomplishments, learning schemes need to see the differences which exist between linguistic communications and guarantee that scholars utilize these differences in larning the mark linguistic communication and that their native linguistic communication competency does non impede their mark linguistic communication acquisition. For case as illustrated by Chang, El-Ashry, Leclere and Palmer ( 2007:8 ) negative transportations can happen in the acquisition of English vowels by Arabic talkers due to the bing difference in the writing system of both linguistic communications. While vowels are found in the English alphabet and each of them stand foring multiple phonemes, Arabic talkers express their long vowels utilizing letters which represent individual phonemes. This contrast needs to be clearly addressed in the instruction of English long vowels to Arabic scholars.
McCarthy and O’Keeffe ( 2004:26 ) ascertain that the usage of spoken principal has become rather of import in the instruction of speech production. Corpus in the instruction of Arabic talkers provides a native illustration of the usage of the mark linguistic communication and efficaciously assists scholars in look intoing their competency. The usage of written texts and recordings in the mark linguistic communication is demonstrated in the course of study and lesson program and promises to heighten eloquence and pronunciation. In learning matter-of-fact competency in Arabic scholars of English, there are assorted underlying premises which include the fact that the act of speech production is tantamount to executing speech Acts of the Apostless, that there are peculiar address Acts of the Apostless used by all linguistic communications and that there are differences in how talkers of different linguistic communications do things and in when they do them. The elaborate course of study has accommodated a huge scope of address Acts of the Apostless as scholars are taught how to transport out assorted colloquial undertakings. Besides, the usage of communicative activities like group work and function drama provides an effectual manner of leaving matter-of-fact competency.
From the above treatment, it is apparent that syllabus design is a complex and affecting undertaking. The analyzed course of study will efficaciously transform the speech production and pronunciation capablenesss of the targeted Libyan pupils. Greatly motivated to derive communicative competency in English, the scholars will profit from a communicative instruction attack which is besides learner centered. In add-on, this attack makes it easy to get matter-of-fact competency every bit good. The course of study has incorporated assorted countries in speech production and pronunciation which are considered to be debatable amongst Arabic talking 2nd linguistic communication scholars. As such, the surveies of contracted address, modulation, word emphasis, [ -ed ] signifier application, long vowels and plural signifiers of /s/z/iz/ have been incorporated. Other facets of significance which have been addressed include the usage of spoken principal and the top-down, bottom-up abilities in scholars. In kernel, this course of study has the capacity to act upon the accomplishment of the larning aims desired by the Libyan pupils.
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