RSH8001 Research Methods

RSH8001 Research Methods

Assignments 1

Table of Contents

1. Introduction 1

2. Research objective 2

3. Philosophical worldview 3

4. Research designs 5

4.1. Drawing comparison amid disparate research designs 5

4.2. Justification behind choosing qualitative research design 7

4.3. Stating ineffectiveness of quantitative and mixed research approaches 8

5. Comparing and contrasting different research methods 9

5.1. Justification behind selecting narrative research methods 9

5.2. Providing reasons behind not selecting a survey, experimental or phenomenological technique 10

6. Identifying potential data collection methods 10

6.1. Justifying chosen data collection methods are appropriate for current research 10

7. Conclusion 11

8. Reference List: 12

  1. Introduction

Organization environment reflects the influence of a societal system or it can be better said as organizations are always under the influence of a society in which they are mapped. So, “societal values and organizational values are inter-linked. “culture has learned from those who surround us on a societal level, the act of observing behaviours of others in our social group is one way we learn the norms of the relevant culture” stated Low and Champan (2003page number?). Therefore, the critical success factors (CSF) of the service were intensely evaluated by commercial research methodology.

Once the purpose statement had been established, research queries by the examiner could be interpreted, along with the hypothetical outline, to accomplish efficacious business research policy. In order to select the most suitable one, the researcher would have to carefully look into several research schemes and approaches, as well as data assemblage techniques. The researcher is accountable in terms of providing valid reasons for rejecting a research topic. Moreover, this study comprises four different sections, commencing with the motive of the study, which discusses an assortment of data collection methods. 

  1. Research objective

Taking a bird’s eye view of the studies proposed in the past, it can be evaluated that society and organizational culture and the effects of both on each other have been clearly described. However, the influence of this culture (which is product of both society and an organization) on top management commitment and user participation has not been discussed in the prior studies. It is so because the top management commitment and user participation are the known to be the major factors responsible for the success of the strategic IS planning (Selim 2007).

With the intention of understanding any dilemmas faced by established countries, such as the United States, when they launched their Strategic information system planning initiative, it is important to recognise literature gaps and outline any issues they faced with regards to the implementation process. Following this, the technique will be considered in this paper, which was embraced by the UAE for organizations, as well as recognising elements and subjects that influence the method, through cross-examining the chief administrators of the scheme.

In light of the tremendous practices adopted by the United States, the main interest of the researcher is to attain a strategic IS planning. With regards to the State of UAE, through highlighting the transitions in conditions and necessities around the State of UAE and the United States. The researcher will come up with appropriate suggestions regarding the present scenario of the strategic IS planning  initiative in the state of the UAE, following the recognition of chief influences and issues.

 When it comes to specific research, the social constructivism approach is selected by the researcher due to the ideal nature of a philosophical worldview needed for qualitative analysis. The social constructivism philosophy revolves around the process of interactions in terms of historical and cultural itinerary (Creswell 2014).  The main focus of this case study is the execution of culture in the large companies, hence, flexible questions would be asked of the contestants along with collecting data of their responses. This methodology of the qualitative research is referred to as precursory and always referred to as societal, as it gathers worthy data from the research field.

Following are the techniques that led to the successful implementation of the Strategic information system planning initiative in the UAE. Consequently, the research query that will be asked in the theory is:

Name some significant elements responsible for the Strategic information system planning  application in UAE.

This research study will have the following objectives to be achieved: 

  1. To assess the effect of culture on strategic IS planning success determinants 
  2. To explore the reasons which cause culture influence the factors of strategic IS planning success.

The study under discussion focuses on answering the following questions:

  1. What is the impact of culture on strategic IS planning success determinants?
  2. What are the reasons which cause culture influence the factors of strategic IS planning success?

The effects of the factors of success of strategic IS planning and impacts of organizational culture on the factors of success of strategic IS planning are major topics about which hypotheses were created with an aim to address the research questions. 

  1. Philosophical worldview

In the most cases, the philosophical worldview  is hidden in the research (Slife & Williams, 1995) but it has an influence on the process of research and it is mandatory to find the worldview.

Despite the fact, that philosophical ideas influence research practice, and its need is stressed upon, it tends to remain concealed when it comes to research. In order to justify selection of qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches, the philosophical worldview would assist the researcher (Creswell 2014). The researcher listed four types of research philosophies such as, “post positivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatism” even though there is constant debate on philosophical worldviews. The over-all philosophical alignments of the world and type of research, is exhibited through the accomplishment of philosophical worldviews (Guest, MacQueen & Niamey 2012).

Philosophy of post positivism, the conventional shape of research and the suppositions are more preferable when it comes to quantitative analysis instead of qualitative analysis (Creswell 2014). The deterministic philosophy is depicted by the post positivist as it causes influences or outcomes. The conventional issues of the community are challenged by the philosophy of post positivism and it emphasises the honesty and power of knowledge (Creswell 2012). For a qualitative examination of the study, the philosophy of constructivism aligned with interpretivism, is idyllic. The understanding of the contemporary world, in terms of working and residing, is a paramount concern of the social constructivists. In light of the social constructivism circumstances, individuals keep highlighting subjectively, their worthy experiences. There are a number of complications and perspectives that are highlighted by the social constructivists, however, they should restrict their ideas and thoughts under a specific segment (Chen et al. 2006).

The aim of philosophical worldview is to examine a specific situation by being a part of these discussions in reference to flexible cross questioning. According to the transformative worldview, research investigations should be aligned with political custody or either agenda at several standards throughout the awakening of social oppression. The motive behind philosophical worldview is to transform the lifestyle of people and highlight various societal complications, for instance, “domination, destruction, alienation, and empowerment”. The most significant aspects of transformative philosophical worldview are, “reformation and alteration” (Creswell, 2014).

In view of the practical rational worldview, it was the foremost aim of the researcher to deeply analyse the complications arising in research along with enforcing several research methodologies so as to resolve the specific issue (Creswell, 2014). The main issue of the research is the implementation of social science and pluralistic methodology intended to sort out a specific problem in an efficacious way. This sort of philosophical perspective is not limited to it or to the execution of specific philosophy; instead it places importance on the mixed procedural approach where the researcher is free to choose whatever s/he wants.

  1. Research designs

“The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data” (De Vaus, 1993page number?). The examiner recognised the kind of study in which a specific choice is preferable, along with the study of quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches as the research designs. The application of research design is associated with research motive, research queries and the selected research philosophy. For post positivism philosophical worldview, the quantitative research design is more suitable as it revolves around valid experiments (Thompson, 2006).   

In order to collect worthy data from the respondents by expounding mechanical equation, the experimental and non-experimental research designs of quantitative analysis are useful. The quantitative research design falls under two portions; surveys and experiments (Lipsey, 1990). The motive of the qualitative research approach is to examine the conventions of descriptive investigators. The quality of the research topic can be improved due to qualitative research designs as it collects worthy data from the government executives in the state of the UAE.

Narrative research design and phenomenological research design are part of the qualitative research design. In light of a specific context, the mix method research design comprises  quantitative and qualitative research design. The qualitative segment is flexible due to its nature; however, the quantitative research design favours inflexible techniques (Fowler, 2002). The main focus of the application of mixed methods research design is the active participation in nullifying the vulnerabilities as well as dissemination of compossing data (Keppel & Wickens, 2004). The researcher chose  qualitative research design due to the nature of the theme.

  1. Drawing comparison amid disparate research designs

These are a combination of quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches. Experimental and non-experimental research designs are part of quantitative research design. Nevertheless, the qualitative research design contains narrative research, phenomenology, grounded mechanism etc. In contrast, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential and transformative are part of a mixed approach. Currently, only a specific one is shortlisted according to the variables of the topic (Creswell, 2014). When it comes to the establishment of research practices, there are diverse research approaches implemented to attain expected outcomes from the research. Despite this, there are three of the most widespread approaches executed most frequently that include qualitative, quantitative and a mixed approach. Without talking about the chief principles of each approach, exploring the main features of these three research approaches is not preferable. The qualitative research is mostly referred to as exploratory research and its intention is to accomplish the understanding of vital reasons and encouragement with views (Wilkinson, 1991). In order to accomplish quantitative research, a specific and unique vision regarding the issue is provided and describes how it can be beneficial in formulating notions. Besides this, transitions in views and thoughts can be attained by qualitative research (Creswell, 2014). With this context in mind, the qualitative research provides a deeper insight of the complication (Gioia, Corley & Hamilton, 2013).

On the other hand, there are multifarious complications that arise due to qualitative research, as the framework is invulnerable due to the absence system and present researches. Besides, it is also claimed that complication comprises the idea that the theory presented for this approach is not that precise. Furthermore, the need to examine and discuss the mechanism, to improve the concept, cannot be denied (Creswell, 2014). Likewise, when it comes to execution, the qualitative research design differs in applying unorganised or semi organised approaches. With the aim to execute existing research, subsequently the implementation of strategic IS planning in UAE encompasses various issues in reference to critical success factors; that the qualitative research is somewhat advantageous.

In such a situation, the leading issue that arises involves the unproductive enforcement of CSF’s. The CSF’s are a combination of several mechanisms depending upon the attained, expected or satisfactory outcome that can guarantee successful competitive performance for organisations, departments and individuals. Consequently, it can be deduced that the accomplishment of qualitative research design is successful as it completely covers each and every important obstacle of the research, for instance, delving into the negative influence of CSF because of unsuitable accomplishment.

The qualitative research design, on the other hand, makes use of numerical data in order to calculate the data which is then converted into statistics that can be used (Tesch 2013). The qualitative research method is used to calculate the views, opinions and other such factors.  

The research method starts with the sample results, which are then generalised according to their population. There are many factors that require the attention of the researcher while doing research. For example, we can say for a determined researcher, more analysis would be done in between the variables of the research by centrally answering questions as well as hypothesis with the help of a survey and experiments. The surveys and experiments are the foundations of quantitative research (Hannigan & Lynch, 2013). Hence, we may acquire results that are either numerical or quantitative. The structure that we have made for our research might be beneficial to us in the way that we can conduct a survey in order to find out the advantages of the application of strategic IS planning services which can be held in developing countries that have already made use of strategic IS planning.

Any good researcher knows that there should be a backup plan in case the selected research method does not produce the expected results. In our case, we have selected the mixed method research as our backup. This method is made up of a number of methods that can be used to create a very effective design (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2013). The advantages are not often proven, as this method has been in developed only recently (Green & Thorogood, 2013). Our research may not prove to be very effective in finding out the critical points of implementing strategic IS planning in UAE, as this is a very big discussion involving many factors such as, advantages and suitability. Our research may not do the topic enough justice.

On the other side, an additional handy Also successful research plan stays as the standby of At whatever research may be the blended technique exploration procedure. In our case, we have selected the mixed method research as our backup. This method is made up of a number of methods that can be used to create a very effective design (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2013). The advantages are not often proven, as this method has been developed only recently (Green & Thorogood, 2013). Our research may not prove to be very effective in finding out the critical points of implementing strategic IS planning in UAE, as this is a very big discussion involving many factors such as, advantages and suitability. Our research may not do the topic enough justice.

  1. Justification behind choosing qualitative research design 

The most suitable option for our research is the qualitative research design as it uses variable ideas to explore at great perspective instead of using the quantitative research design which generally analyses the data through text, images and other techniques Kohler (2008).For the application of e-government systems, it could be used some parts of the qualitative research method such as  observing factors important to implementation. The research method that could have adopted in the current research, is very suitable as it allows us to deal with topics that have some techniques involved in quantitative and mixed design approach. The research design of the study will also use a sample and data collection procedures that are very vital in the research srudy. There is going to be an interview and secondary opinions will be required so that the benefits of CSF in the implementation of organisations can be achieved. The qualitative research design will help in doing just that.  

It is crucial to involve a knowledgeable audience, and operation of qualitative research design includes the requirement of a potential audience for analysis as the implementation of organisations (Kazdin 2003) with the benefits of SCF’s, may include an intensive analysis taking the variable of the existing research. Also, there are many other factors that have led us to select this research design, such as techniques that are included in qualitative research design usually help in collecting data at the field site where there are issues faced by the respondents. It can be seen that these difficulties are taken as the problems of the research and it is made easier by the respondents’ answers to the queries that are asked.

  1. Stating ineffectiveness of quantitative and mixed research approaches

There may be some inefficiency involved while evaluating CSF’s involved in carrying out strategic IS planning due to quantitative research design. This may be due to the fact that this method uses only a group of people that are in the sample size (Tashakkori & Teddlie 2003). If the sample size is small, it may not be able to create the expected results for the implementation of e-government. It may also not obtain the expected outcomes  by simply investigating a particular group of people. This may be due to the fact that if the researcher focuses on one group, then the other group won’t get the same amount of attention required. The survey method will also be useless as there is no government that has tried to evaluate its effectiveness through surveys.

The mixed research method may not be able to help much in this research, as the procedure involved for this method is not fully obvious to the researcher or to the reader. It also involves different small techniques that take a very long time to be performed  (Osborne. 2008). Although, it may be productive to use both the quantitative method as well as the qualitative method to obtain the desired results, this may fail due to the length of time taken and more effort. The end result still would not be satisfactory. While using the quantitative research design, it is essential to use a particular place for research, which is not possible in this case as no particular place has until now observed the CSF’s of strategic IS planning.

  1. Comparing and contrasting different research methods 

 Researchers have been investigating a great deal on various research designs like quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. The quantitative research design further consists of survey methods that provide a numeric description of attitudes, opinions and trends that are popular among a particular group of people (Lazo 2010). The quantitative research design has an added advantage due to its experimental research technique; made up of two distinct groups used to get the best results (Marshall et al., 2013). The other two methods are not very suitable for this  research as they do not allow for productive research by not exploring the major issues of the topic. The experimental research method will also not work properly if an immense population is being used in the research.   

The much better results are likely to be achieved through the use of qualitative research design in this study. There are two key research methods that are used in qualitative research design: the narrative research method and the phenomenological research technique (Bowen, 2009). The phenomenological research technique, allows the researcher to explain the experiences gained by people in terms of a phenomenon (Punch, 2013). It is used a lot during interviews or when there is a strong need for philosophical underpinning. The narrative research technique, allows the researcher to study the lives of people which are narrated by them and contain the major issues they faced, which are then evaluated (Rossi, Wright & Anderson, 2013). In this research study , this technique will be used to ask the people of UAE about the problems they have faced in the policy and systems executed by their government.

  1. Justification behind selecting narrative research methods

The current research method allows the researcher to direct efforts to observing the lives of the people, while keeping the main focus on their humanity. This research study would be covered  the crucial points that will arise while implementing strategic IS planning; its benefits for the general public. The study will be covered some stratum of UAE people so that  there is not much use of electronics in UAE, so a narrative research method to understand the opinions of the people of UAE regarding the use of strategic IS planning along with their issues and experiences could be suitable for this project .

  1. Providing reasons behind not selecting a survey, experimental or phenomenological technique

In the experimental research method, the data is collected from only one or two groups of people in a single research topic. A survey consists of a distinct group of people that take part in the evaluation, in the form of respondents of a sample size. In this study, it could not  use a limited group of people as it need the views of as many people as possible, which has led us to decide that these methods will be useless in our research.

  1. Identifying potential data collection methods 

There are various methods that can be utilised for doing research, for example: surveys, experiments, interviews, group surveys, observations, and so on. The benefit acquired through qualitative observation is that it is the most suitable, to observe the views and opinions of people while doing this research, whereas the qualitative interview method helps researchers to acquire information through interviews, whether they are through respondents or face-to-face, to collect the data (Willig, 2013). 

Semi-structured interviews will be conducted to suitably access the meaningful information from the people, Semi- structured  interviews are simply conversations in which you know what you want to find out about – and do have a set of questions to ask and good idea of what topic will covered (Fylan 2005, p.65)

  1. Justifying chosen data collection methods are appropriate for current research

The selected qualitative observation is most appropriate as it has aided in the research of studying the attitudes and workings of diverse people. The method works by collection of ideas and perspectives of people regarding strategic IS planning. It is not possible to acquire the desired data through questionnaires and interviews in our situation. The study would be taken the alternate method to using semi-structured interview, which is by pursuing the qualitative method. The topic of our research is the implementation of strategic IS planning in UAE for which we have used a qualitative observation method to know the view of the people.

  1. Conclusion 

In deed, The research process has been under development and in progression as new methods are created. It can be observed, which process have the types of benefits the research requires. In this study, qualitative method would be adopted to acquire the provided results for the crucial points of success in the execution of strategic IS planning in UAE. It also could be used the same method to gain all the information and facts that were required for our research. This work can be used for future research on the same topic.

  1. Reference List: 

Bowen, GA 2009, ‘Document analysis as a qualitative research method’, Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 27-40.

Chen, Y, Chen, H, Huang, W & Ching, RK 2006, ‘E-government strategies in developed and developing countries: An implementation framework and case study’, Journal of Global Information Management, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 23.

Cohen, L, Manion, L & Morrison, K 2013, Research Methods in Education, Taylor & Francis.

Creswell, J.W., 2012. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications.

Creswell, JW 2014, Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches, vol. Fourth, International Student, SAGE, Los Angeles, Calif.

Fowler, FJ 2002, Survey research methods, vol. 1., Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, Calif. 

Fylan, F. (2005). Semi-structured interviewing. In J. Miles & P. Gilbert (Eds.), A handbook of research methods for clinical and health psychology (pp. 65-78). 

Gioia, DA, Corley, KG & Hamilton, AL 2013, ‘Seeking Qualitative Rigor in Inductive Research: Notes on the Gioia Methodology’, Organizational Research Methods, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 15-31.

Green, J & Thorogood, N 2013, Qualitative methods for health research, Sage Publications, London.

Guest, G, MacQueen, KM & Namey, EE 2012, Applied thematic analysis, Sage Publications, Los Angeles.

Hannigan, A & Lynch, CD 2013, ‘Statistical methodology in oral and dental research: pitfalls and recommendations’, Journal of dentistry, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 385-92.

Osborne., JW 2008, Best practices in quantitative methods, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks CA. 

Kazdin, A.E., 2003. Research design in clinical psychology.

Keppel, G & Wickens, TD 2004, Design and analysis: a researcher’s handbook, vol. 4th, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.

Kohler, C 2008, Narrative methods for the human sciences, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 

Lazo, J 2010, ‘An Overview of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods’,  

Lipsey, MW 1990, Design sensitivity: statistical power for experimental research, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif.

Marshall, B, Cardon, P, Poddar, A & Fontenot, R 2013, ‘Does sample size matter in qualitative research?: a review of qualitative interviews in is research’, The Journal of Computer Information Systems, vol. 54, no. 1, p. 11.

Punch, KF 2013, Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches, Sage.

Rossi, PH, Wright, JD & Anderson, AB 2013, Handbook of survey research, Academic Press.

Selim, HM 2007, ‘Critical success factors for e-learning acceptance: Confirmatory factor models’, Computers & Education, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 396-413.

Sheng, Y. & Pearson, J.M. 2003. Organizational culture and employees’ computer selfefficiency:

an empirical study. Information resources management journal. 16 (3): 42-58.

Tashakkori, A & Teddlie, C 2003, Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks Calif. 

Tesch, R 2013, Qualitative research: Analysis types and software, Routledge.

Thompson, B 2006, Foundations of behavioral statistics: An insight-based approach, Guilford Press.

Wilkinson, AM 1991, The scientist’s handbook for writing papers and diss ertations, Prentice Hall.

Willig, C 2013, Introducing qualitative research in psychology, McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

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