Research Questions

The experimental study sought to identify whether cesarean-delivered newborns who experienced skin to skin contact within an hour of delivery were at risk of hypothermia. It is worth noting that there existed a commonly held belief amongst healthcare providers that children exposed to SSC contact were more likely to acquire mild hypothermia. However, study findings did prove that these kids were, in fact, not at risk of hypothermia when compared to vaginal-delivered children. The independent variable in this study, therefore, was the susceptibility of caesarian-delivered children getting hypothermia whereas the dependent variable involved the mode of infant delivery.  Therefore, in this regards the research of this nature sought to find out whether children born from either mode of delivery had a significant risk of acquiring hypothermia. 

The manipulated variables in the study were consistent with those identified in the purpose of the study. In this regards, researchers did use a randomized control study where they used a control group to confirm the findings. They did split the 34 newborns with 17 of them receiving routine care whereas the other 17 received Skin to Skin Contact. Their temperatures were later taken at one-hour intervals to assess the changes in temperature between the two groups.

It is worth noting that the variables were reflective of the concepts identified in the entire study framework in respect to the fact that they did comprehensively attempt to find out whether the preconceived fact held water. In this regards, researchers did try to manipulate the variables by separating these newborns into two groups with one receiving standard care while the other group was receiving SSC. After this step was complete, participants were closely monitored for temperature changes in order to find the truth in the earlier preconceived notion. 

The variable is clearly defined as distinct with an attempt to find a correlation between the mode of delivery and the likeliness of acquiring hypothermia being subject of the study. However, it is worth noting that the study itself was not based on previously researched data hence; therefore, its findings would have introduced a new concept altogether. In this regards, it is noteworthy that there had been an existing belief amongst providers that performing SSC after delivery through caesarean section did pose a risk to minors as they would be more likely to acquire mild hypothermia. However, research findings did prove otherwise as they did suggest that there were no statistical differences in temperatures of children who had received standard care at the setting in comparison with those who received SSC.

The conceptual definition of the variable has since been consistent with the operational definition in the respect that it did first highlight the subject of the study. In this regards, the study was aimed at identifying whether children were at high risk of getting hypothermia if exposed to skin to skin contact. Later, the study provided a consistent argument based on obtained data which was taken on a regular basis to prove that these children were less likely to be at risk any more than their counterparts who had normally been delivered. Therefore, it is worth noting that the concept at the beginning of the study did take shape throughout the study and provided consistent data that proved that the preconceived notion had, in fact, been wrong.

The demographic variables such as the weight and health status of the children were not taken into consideration. Additionally, the environmental temperature at the time of carrying out the study was not available. Therefore, it is worth noting that all of these factors did not play a part in informing the approach with which researchers undertook this study. However, the data on the temperatures of the children was made available and recorded in intervals.  

The extraneous variables were identified, and they included those aspects that could have altered the results of the study. These variables included the atmospheric temperature at the time the skin to skin contact was being carried out. Therefore, children were covered with a blanket after they were laid on the chests of their mothers shortly after they were brought back to the recovery room. Perhaps the reason why such was done could be attributed to the fact that atmospheric temperature could have altered the body temperatures of the newborns hence distorting the figures as the likelihood of this child getting hypothermia could have been driven even higher. 

Perhaps some of the uncontrolled extraneous findings which had the potential of distorting the study results included the dryness of the skin of the newborn. The wet skin could have easily contributed to a much higher risk of developing hypothermia as they could easily get cold. However, this variable has not yet been discussed within the study findings hence; therefore, it has not featured anywhere in the discussion. In spite of this fact, however, this aspect remained critical in ensuring that the research findings remained credible. Wet skin could have had an impact in distorting the body temperatures of both groups to some degree.


Creswell, J. and Clark, V. (2011).Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. 1st ed. California: SAGE Publications.

Jupp, V. (2006).The SAGE Dictionary of Social Research Methods. 1st ed. California: SAGE Publications.

Neumann, W. (2006). Workbook for Neumann Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.

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