1. An example of primary productivity would be
A. a wild raspberry plant growing 30 grams of new leaf mass during a day of photosynthesis.
B. a young oriole growing 10 grams of muscle during a feeding trip to a raspberry bush. 
C. a young hawk growing 10 more grams of body mass by killing and eating a young oriole. 
D. more than one of the above. 
2.  Diversity refers to 
A. number of different species present
B. number of ecological niches
C. amount of genetic diversity
D. all of the above
3. An ecosystem consists of 
A. A physical environment within which a biological community lives
B. The species with which a biological community interacts
C. A biological community and its physical environment
D. The primary producers within a biological community
E. All the species in a biological community
4. A keystone species is a species whose presence 
A. Is the main reason a community exists
B. Provides food for all other species in a community
C. Is an indicator of environmental health
D. Influences the population size of many other species in its community
E. Is always at the top of the trophic levels as a top predator
5. Biomass includes all 
A. Material in an ecosystem
B. Things that are living at a given time
C. Living and nonliving things
D. Matter produced by primary producers
E. Biological material
6. No two species can occupy the same ecological niche as one species will outcompete the other one. 
A. True
B. False
7. Succession can produce changes in soil, degree of shade, available moisture, and species membership of a community. 
A True
B False
8. Cheetahs can run extremely fast because
A. They need to run extremely fast in order to catch their prey
B. An ancestor that was able to run fast had an advantage and passed those genes on to its offspring
C. Over time they gradually built up speed as they adapted to faster and faster prey species
D. They are competing with stronger lions and hyenas for their food so they need to be fast
E. All of these are reasons cheetahs can run extremely fast
9. Most organisms’ niches are controlled by
A. Genetic determinants
B. Lessons learned from parents
C. Behavior learned from others in their social groups
D. Luck
E. The predators and competitors they encounter
10. A biological community’s productivity is a measure of
A. Its number of species
B. The number of individuals in the community
C. Available solar energy that can be converted to biomass
D. The amount of biomass produced in the community
E. All of these are combined in measuring a community’s productivity
11. Primary succession occurs when a community develops ____________ while secondary succession occurs when one ________.
A. Into a climax community; species replaces another
B. And replaces another; ecosystem becomes stable
C. On unoccupied ground; biological community replaces another
D. And then fails; niche changes
E. Intraspecific competition; experiences interspecific competition
12. Location of specific biomes can be predicted based on 
A. The Coriolis Effect 
B. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics 
C. Precipitation and temperature 
D. Seasonal variations in sunspots 
E. Large landforms in the area 
13. A biome is described by 
A. A specified bioregion
B. Broadly similar environmental conditions along similar latitudinal patterns
C. A watershed divide, generally
D. Geographic location
E. Large landforms in the area
14. Deciduous forests 
A. Are adapted to extremely cold climates
B. Have trees that bear seeds in cones
C. Have trees that shed their leaves seasonally
D. Are not useful commercially
E. Are not found in the African continent
15.  Boreal forests are generally 
A. Cold and dry, with extensive barren areas
B. Warm and humid, with large rivers
C. Dry because water is frozen most of the year
D. Slow-growing because of the cold temperatures
E. Soggy in the summer because of permafrost
16. Estuaries are noted by biologists because they have few, but highly specialized, biological niches. 
A. True 
17. Wetlands perform a major ecosystem service of trapping and filtering water as it passes through the wetland area.
A. True 
18. In contrast with the ______________, the soil of the ______________ is more nutrient-rich and this type of biome has fewer insects, parasites and fungal diseases. Therefore, in many places, these areas are highly endangered. 
A. Temperate grasslands; tropical seasonal forest
B. Tropical rainforest; tropical seasonal forest
C. Grasslands; boreal forests
D. Tropical seasonal forest; tropical rainforest
E. Boreal forests; tundra
19. Carrying capacity is the population or biomass 
A. That an environment can support in an optimal year 
B. Of a species that an environment can support on a long-term basis 
C. That remains after a catastrophic dieback has occurred 
D. Of a species without limiting factors 
E. Of a species without predators 
20. the most overfished species in the world is Bluefin tuna. 
A. True
B. False
21. You are studying an organism that is a pioneer species is an opportunist and does not care for its offspring. This organism probably has a _________________ population growth strategy. 
A. K-adapted
B. R-adapted
C. Irregular
D. Catastrophic
E. R-adapted and irregular
22. You are studying an organism that is fairly large, matures slowly, lives fairly long and cares for its offspring. This organism probably has a _________________ population growth strategy. 
A. K-adapted 
B. R-adapted 
C. Irregular 
D. Catastrophic 
E. R-adapted and irregular 
23. Life expectancy is the 
A. Maximum life span that an individual of a given species could reach
B. Number of individuals in a population that survive in a given year
C. Number of years an individual of a certain age will probably live
D. Probability that an individual will survive infancy
E. All of these are descriptions of life expectancy
24. Ninety percent of the world’s population growth in the next century is expected to occur in 
A. Less-developed countries
B. China
C. Developed countries
D. Moderately developed nations
E. India
25. Which of the following factors does not usually affect the crude death rates of a population? 
A. Health care 
B. Sanitation 
C. Age structure of the population 
D. Nutrition 
E. All of these affect crude death rates 
26. The histogram on the left represents a population whose birth rates 
A. Have not changed for many years
B. Have recently decreased
C. Are gradually increasing
D. Are sharply increasing
E. None of these – birth rates cannot be determined by the age class histogram
27. The population represented by the age class histogram on the right will 
A. Have a large population of old people soon
B. Not grow much in the coming years
C. Soon begin to decline
D. Grow substantially in the future
E. Grow slowly in the futur
28. Women who ________ are least likely to have many children. 
A. Cannot afford children
B. Live where many children die young
C. Are subordinate to their husbands
D. Are able to earn an income for themselves
E. All of these are correct
Use the following demographic data on three hypothetical countries for question # 29. 
Country “A” Country “B” Country “C”
Fertility (per female)  2.0  3.1  6.7
Infant Mortality (per 1000 people) 9  69  62
Life Expectancy (years)  75.5  65  61
Per-capita income (U.S. dollars)  $21,700 $2,680  $370
Doubling Time (years)   89  37  19
29. Which of the following demographic categories best identifies Country “A”? 
A. Developed
B. Moderately developed
C. Less developed
D. Developing
E. Third World
30. The world’s human population is about 7.4 billion. 
A. True
B. False
31. Climate is a description of ________ weather conditions. 
A. Long-term, regional
B. Stable and unchanging
C. Temporary
D. Temporary, local
E. Annual
32. The greenhouse effect in the atmosphere occurs because 
A. Clouds reflect sunlight back into space 
B. Oceans absorb heat and then release it slowly at night 
C. Stratospheric ozone absorbs UV radiation 
D. CO2, water vapor, methanol and other gases absorb infrared radiation 
E. All of these are correct 
33. Since the mid 1960’s what has happened to the snow cover in the northern hemisphere and sea levels measured in Stockholm, Sweden? 
A. Snow cover has increased; Sea levels have increased 
B. Snow cover has decreased; Sea levels have increased 
C. Snow cover has increased; Sea levels have decreased 
D. Snow cover has decreased; Sea levels have decreased 
34. According to climate computer models, which of the following activities accounts for most of the increase in the Earth’s temperature over the past century? 
A. Volcanic eruptions. 
B. Natural variability. 
C. Increased solar radiation coming from the sun. 
D. Human activity.
35.. Which of the following statements about the amount of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere from 1960 until 2000 is true? 
A. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has remained fairly constant. 
B.  The amount of carbon dioxide had decreased. 
C. While there have been intra-annual cycle fluctuations, the overall trend has been an increase in carbon dioxide. 
D. While there have been intra annual cycle fluctuations, the overall trend shows both an increase and decrease in carbon dioxide. 
36.. Deforestation and fossil fuel emissions _______
A.  act as a sink of carbon by tying up carbon in the world’s oceans 
B.  cannot be measured accurately 
C.  are not a significant source of carbon into the atmosphere 
D. contribute to an excess of carbon into the atmosphere 

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