Problem-Based Learning

This example belongs to Problem Based Learning
Because problem-based learning comprises of the methods that provide the learners with realistic problems that do not necessarily have “right” answers. This method is planned for the development of critical thinking skills and to engage the students in given course. This method also enhances the students’ interest.
For example the teacher may present the problem of energy shortage in Pakistan and ask for solutions. Obviously there is no one solution for it. The students then are encouraged to study the problem and suggest a different solution that may solve the problem. This method has proved affective for the initial of introductory courses towards the end.

It includes team work and clarifies the defining problem, brainstorming, hypothesis and learning objectives etc. teachers aim in this technique is to build confidence and enhancing their thinking skills. It requires more time for preparation of scheme, to arrange resources and find solutions. Principles for this procedure are:

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Based upon values of mature education concept.
Arrange small groups for learning.
Depends upon the scenario of curriculum lesson planning.

A teacher has a discussion on a topic with his students over a cup of tea in college café.
The above given example is from Instructional Learning
This is the third method of instructional techniques which consists of dialogues or conversations between teachers and students that encourage learning and is also called as instructional conservation. Obviously learning is not confined to class rooms and lectures; it continues after class and lectures. So what students learn from teachers in mutual interaction, dialogue exchange of ideas is called Instructional Learning.
It is said when people went to meet Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal, he used to teach them through conversation. Another example is that students are walking with the teacher after lecture and they are discussing any topic. This is an example of instructional conversation that helps students to learn outside of the classroom. Tea houses culture is also a form of this learning.
This is the responsibility of a teacher to identify students who do not ask question in classroom, involve in this sort of conversion to help them to learn more. Such as, you can involve students in constructive conversation during sports to encourage them etc. There are some things which cannot be learned without practical knowledge.
A teacher poses an initial question to his students and then facilitates them to reach a definitive answer.
The above example is of Inquiry Learning
This is the first technique in instructional method. It is a form of an active learning. This process is often supported by initiator. Inquiry learning consists of a teacher presenting a problem or a puzzling situation to students. He then asks students to gather data related to the problem. And then, based upon that gathered data, find the answer to the problem.
It includes various descriptions for inquiry training and knowledge. Inquiry is not confined to specific grade levels or subjects. In this type of learning, students’ rehearsal in an inspiring way, both in school and outside. Here is an example of inquiry learning. Follow the instructions, see the situation and then suggest solution for the same.
Put a small piece of paper on a table. Now blow it softly with your breath: It rises from the surface:
A teacher performs a task for his students to observe and then assists and provides feedback while students perform that task.
The above-given example is of Cognitive Apprenticeship
This is the fourth method in the instructional method. This consists of a relationship in which a less experienced learner gains knowledge and skills under the guidance and supervision of an expert. This method was made to take implicit procedures to open where children can perceive, ratify and rehearsal them with the assistance of an expert. In this whole procedure students must be attentive, retain the information and imitate it. They must be self-motivated and capable. Six teaching methods are embedded in cognitive apprenticeship theory which are:

Modeling
Coaching
Scaffolding
Articulation
Reflection
Exploration

In Pakistani labor scene, we witness the operation of this method when we see young boys working at tailoring shops or motor workshops, learning to cut cloth, and stitch clothes under the guidance experienced tailors.

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