The Ice Age formed a land bridge in the area of present-day Boring Sea, which allowed nomadic groups of people to enter the Americas. B. Group of Nomads 1. Traveled across the Boring Land Bridge and populated the Americas 2. Split into countless tribes and evolved into over 2,000 languages a. Incas- Peru b. Mayans- Central America c. Aztec- Mexico Ill. The Earliest Americans A. Pueblo Indians 1. Constructed Intricate Irrigation systems to water their cornfields. 2. Lived In adobes and pueblos. B. Mound Builders 1. Lived at Iacocca, near present-day East SST. Louis. 2.
Built an elaborate pueblo of more than six hundred interconnected rooms at Coach Canyon. C. Eastern Indians 1. Developed the three-sister farming where the beans grew on the trellis of the cornstalks and the squash covering the planting mounds to retain moisture in the soil. 2. Among them were the Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee. D. Iroquois Confederacy 1. Created by the legendary leader, Hiawatha. 2. Developed political and organizational skills to sustain a robust military alliance that menaced its neighbors. IV. Indirect Discoveries of the New World A. Blonde bearded Norse from Scandinavia reaches North America. . The Vikings landed around 1,000 C. E. 2. They landed at a place near Leans auk Meadows in present-day Newfoundland. . They soon abandoned the place and their discoveries were soon forgotten. B. Christian Crusaders rank high among America’s indirect discoveries. 1 . Tens of thousands fought to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslim control. 2. Foiled in their assaults, the Crusaders craved the delights of Asia. V. Europeans Enter Africa A. Marco Polo returns to Europe in 1295 from China. B. Slave trade begins 1. Arab merchants and Africans had traded slaves before the Europeans arrived. . Millions were wrenched from their home continent after the discovery of the Americas. C. In 1488, Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Aids rounded the A. Columbus persuaded the Spanish monarchs to outfit him with three tiny but seaworthy ships. B. By heading westward, he thought he would reach the Indies. 1. After six weeks at sea, he thought he reached the Indies when it was the Americas and mistaken the people there as “Indians. ” C. Columbus discovery led too global economic system. 1. Europe would provide the markets, capital, and the technology. 2. Africa would provide the labor. 3.
New World would provide the raw materials. VI’. When Worlds Collide A. The Old World and the New World traded things also known as the Columbian Exchange. B. The New World gave the Old World: 1. Corn, potatoes, pineapples, tomatoes, tobacco, beans, vanilla, etc. 2. Gold, silver, and syphilis(SST). C. The Old World gave the New World: 1. Wheat, sugar cane, rice, coffee, horse, cows, pigs, etc. 2. Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, etc. A. Have any immunity in their bodies. B. Thus, around 90% of Native Americans died. VIII. The Spanish Conquistadores The Indians didn’t A.
Portugal and Spain argued over who got what land and the argument was settled wrought the Treaty of Tortillas. 1. Portugal received territories in Africa, Asia, and Brazil. 2. Spain received territories in the Americas. B. Spanish conquistadores fanned out across the Caribbean. 1. Vases Nuns Balboa- discovered the Pacific Ocean. 2. Ferdinand Magellan- His vessel circumnavigated across the globe. 3. Juan Pence De Leon- Explored Florida looking for the “Fountain of Youth. ” 4. Francisco Coronado- Discovered the Grand Canyon and enormous herds of buffalos. 5. Hernandez De Sotto- Discovered the Mississippi River. 6.
Francisco Pizzeria- Crushed the Incas of Peru. C. Encomia system established. . It allowed the government to “command” Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to try to Christianize them. 2. Bartholomew De Alas Cases, appalled by the encomia system, called it “A moral pestilence invented by Satan. ” ‘X. The Conquest of Mexico 1. Montague thought Herman Cortes was the god, Quadruplicate, returning from the eastern sea. 2. Herman Cortes was welcomed into the empire and took advantage by conquering it. 3. A new race of people called messiest is formed, which have a mix of Latin American’s European and Indian blood. 4.
The Spaniards’ greed for gold led Montague to attack the Spanish on niche tries (sad night). X. The Spread of Spanish America 1. Within about half a century of Columbus landfall, Spanish cities flourished in the Americas. 2. Other countries wanted their share of the new lands. A. The English sent Giovanni Cabot to explore the northeastern coast of North America. B. The French sent Giovanni dad Overgraze to probe the eastern seaboard. C. Lawrence River. 3. The Pueblo Indians started an uprising called the Pope’s Rebellion against the Spanish in 1680. 4. The misdeeds of the Spanish in the New World gave birth to the “Black Legend. ”
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