A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is an intensive care unit specializing in the care of ill or premature newborn infants. Neonates who need to go to the unit are often admitted within the first 24 hours after birth. Newborns may be sent to the NICU if: • they’re born prematurely • difficulties occur during their delivery • they show signs of a problem in the first few days of life (sepsis/infection, congenital defects, cardiac / respiratory abnormalities, low birth weight) NICU EQUIPMENT: • BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR may be a smaller version of the blood pressure cuff used on older children and adults.
Or an ARTERIAL CATHETER (tiny tube inserted in an artery) may be used to monitor blood pressure. • CARDIORESPIRATORY MONITOR keeps track of the baby’s heartbeat and breathing • CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) machine delivers air or oxygen through tubes in the nostrils. It uses low, continuous pressure to keep the lungs inflated. • ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE (ETT) used with a respirator or ventilator to send air directly to the lungs. • FEEDING TUBE (ALSO CALLED A GAVAGE TUBE) • INCUBATOR used when newborn is relatively stable but still premature or requiring intravenous fluids or other special attention.
The incubator keeps the newborn warm with moistened air in a clean environment, and helps to protect the baby from noise, drafts, infection, and excess handling • INTRAVENOUS LINE (IV) • PERIPHERALLY INSERTED CENTRAL CATHETER (PICC) OR A PERCUTANEOUS CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER (PCVC) may be inserted in a central (large) vein. This catheter is used to give the fluids, nutrition, and medication. • PHOTOTHERAPY LIGHTS, OR “BILI LIGHTS,” are used when neonates have jaundice • PULSE OXIMETER measures the level of oxygen in the baby’s blood.
It’s attached to the skin with a sensor taped to the baby’s hand or foot. It works by shining a light through the baby’s hand or foot RADIANT WARMERS used for very unstable or extremely premature newborns • RESPIRATOR OR VENTILATOR used to help the baby breathe. These machines are attached to an ETT. • TEMPERATURE PROBE • UMBILICAL ARTERIAL CATHETER (UAC) OR UMBILICAL VENOUS CATHETER (UVC)- catheter is placed in the artery or vein at the stump of the umbilical cord. It’s used to give the medications, fluids, and nutrition. It’s also used to draw blood for lab tests. WEIGHING SCALE COMMON NICU TESTS: • help determine the neonate’s problems and how they should be treated • monitor newborn’s progress. If the neonate needs a major test, the doctor will ask the parents or legal guardian to sign a consent form before the test is done. BLOOD TESTS-provide crucial information on the potential and present problems of the neonate • Bilirubin levels, blood sugar, blood chemistry, electrolytes, CBC, blood C/S, blood gas COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT OR CT SCAN)-produce a more precise image of tissue than an X-ray or ultrasound examination.
ECHOCARDIOGRAM- detects structural problems (heart defects) and problems with how the heart works. HEARING TEST-A tiny earphone will be placed in her ear to deliver sound. Small sensors, which are taped to the baby’s head, will relay information to a machine that measures the electrical activity in her brain in response to sound. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)-The MRI gives a more detailed view than a CT scan NEWBORN SCREENING TEST- tests babies for serious hereditary disorders.
RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY (ROP) EXAMINATION-This test usually is done for newborns born at or before 28 weeks of gestation or weighing less than 1,500 grams (3 1/3 pounds). The test is generally performed about 4 to 6 weeks after birth, or when your newborn reaches 31 to 33 weeks gestational age (weeks since the mother’s last menstrual period). ULTRASOUND-routine test to diagnose bleeding in the brain. URINE TESTS- determine how well the kidneys are functioning, and whether neonate has an infection.
WEIGHING-routine exam, especially for premature and low birth weight newborns X-RAYS- provide pictures of neonate’s lungs and other internal organs. NURSING CARE PLAN: 1. Hyperthermia NDx: Hyperthermia related to inflammatory process/ hypermetabolic state as evidenced by an increase in body temperature, warm skin and tachycardia 2. Fluid Volume Deficit NDx: Fluid volume deficit related to failure of regulatory mechanism |Bucayu, Michael | |Cabulay, Lei-Ann Jessica | |Rodriguez, Kristel Angela | |Talosig, Janica Marie |
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