# need 3 replies to those posts

Describe how your equation relates to the equation posted.
Find one area in the post you disagree with or that can be  improved, and thoughtfully describe your position. Remember to be  respectful.
Your response should be at least three paragraphs (with four sentences per paragraph).

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Maxwell’s  Equations state that in a static electric field, the divergence at one  point equals to the electric charge volume density at that point divided  by a magnetic field. Necessarily, it implies that a rotating magnetic  field is produced by an electric current or by an electric field that  changes with time (Rahm, 2008). Also, it says that a changing magnetic  field that changes with time produces an electric field. In essence, the  Equations consist of three other equations such as Gauss, Faraday, and  Ampere equations.
Maxwell’s  equations in real life can be applied in the explanation of the physics  of permanent magnets. It leads to the formulas generating magnetic  surface currents that describe the generation of the magnetic field as  well as how magnets retain magnetism status. The equations help in the  explanation of how the radio frequency waves propagate that lead to  communications of all kinds to occur with radio signals and TV  transmitters (Rahm, 2008). Besides, the equation explains how the light  in the visible regions is capable of creating things like interference  patterns that have several usages in optical technology.
Maxwell’s  Equations explains the antenna can be designed to get the best signal  which is essential for a cell phone that uses radio waves. Play of video  games using a computer is made possible because of the equation since  it involves changing of electric and magnetic fields (Ishimaru, 2017).  Besides, it is applied in the design of a microwave since it helps in  knowing where the fields are strong or weak. Finally, the equation  allows engineers to know the weight that can make a bridge to crash into  the river.
The  advancement of technology has created another essential use of  Maxwell’s Equations, especially in the health sector. The equation has  used in the determination of how body organs produce bioelectric  signals. The purpose of electrocardiography, electroencephalography, and  electromyography use Maxwell’s Equations in checking of the diseases in  different parts of the body (Ishimaru, 2017). Therefore, it is  projected that the equation would be used in providing more details  about diseases of the brain, heart, and muscles.

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1)

Skin Effect on Transmission Lines
The skin effect describes the tendency for AC current to concentrate  on the outside of a conductor. As the intensity of the current changes  inside the conductor, it produces a magnetic field that rotates  perpendicular to the electromotive force. This magnetic field naturally  resists the change in current and radiates from the middle of the  conductor. This counter-electromotive force pushes the current towards  the edges of the conductor and increases its effective resistance as the  current is bottle necked by the magnetic field.
Skin depth describes the depth of the current density from the  outside of the conductor. This property depends on the frequency of  transmission and the conductors electric and magnetic permeabilities.  The total current that a conductor can handle will decreases  exponentially as the skin depth narrows. This effect has serious  implications for both high frequency and high-power applications alike.
Here is an example of how the skin effect can cause problems with  efficiency: At 20 KHz, the 12 AWG (d=0.093”) wire will use 75% of the  conductor, while the 10 AWG (d=0.115”) wire will only use 68%. This loss  in efficiency forces designers to pay close attention to sizing that  best suits their frequency of operation. Some of the real-world  applications include audio system engineering, long distance  transmission, and RF circuits.
AC transmission has been consistently redesigned since its  introduction in the late 1800’s. Today, our transmission lines are  created by wrapping interlocking copper strips around a hollow core.  This structure reduces the weight of the wire, the cost of copper, and  strength of the transmission towers. The problem is that engineers are  fighting the publics insatiable need for power with incremental  technological gains. AC transmission is limited by the skin effect  combined with cost of materials. One of the exciting new developments in  this field is that engineers are reinvesting in the idea of long  distance direct current transmission.
High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) is an example of future  applications that attempt to circumvent the limitations of the skin  effect. One of the major issues regarding this application is the  regulation of continuous current flow. A direct lightning strike on this  kind of transmission can cause massive breakdowns in infrastructure,  and engineers are diligently working to provide an effective circuit  breaker to protect against this kind of problem. Once these kinds of  problems are ironed out, we might someday see DC transmission become the  leader in long distance transmission.

2)

For this part of assignment, I selected equation that describes  behavior of electric charge when Electric field is applied. Equation is  F= qE. This equation interests me at this point because it can be linked  to mechanical world with concept known as force. While we cannot  typically benefit from just E-field, we do benefit from effect of  electric field on the charges. Sizable amount of E field converted to  current used in systems that convert Electric energy into mechanical  energy. Hence relationship or link from Electric force to Mechanical  force. Unfortunately, this seemingly direct link jeopardized by energy  transfer loss that known as concept of efficiency.
Electrons are particles in conductive material. Electrons are  charge particles that can transfer energy from one end of wire to  another. For energy transfer to occur, electric field must be applied.  Each electron has constant, determined experimentally and theoretically  amount of charge equal to 1.6E-19 C. When conductor appear in constant  E-field all free electron will be forced to edges of conductor such that  sides opposite charges of the E-field source and receiving conductor  will balance out. In case of varying polarity or direction of the  E-field we will observe change of the polarity in the conductors that  happen to be in the E- field. Now what selected equation is actually  states is that strength of the E-field will have greater effect on the  electrons. This effect of the E field on electrons humans defined as a  force.
One application for this equation is in design of electric motors.  Electric motors conceptually are as follows. Charged particles in  conductor (electrons) when moving, create Electric field that excites in  mechanically free to move object charged particles that move to align  with current carrying conductor. Charged particles in the object will be  motivated to align faster and in the end with greater force when  E-field is stronger. Greater E-field creates greater magnetic field  which in turn induces E-field. Mechanisms designed to align fields in  desired direction of motion and with consideration of aligning  perpendicularly to E-field and parallel to magnetic field. This creates  class of electromechanical devices.
Application of electric force has expanded during last century  exponentially. And yet we are not anywhere close to limit of  applications to this charming phenomenon. On example of growing  application of Electric force is ability to wirelessly transfer energy  on short distances. For consumer application notably would be desire of  automotive industry to use higher voltage circuits. In considerations  are power circuit with 48Vand higher. This potentially allows for  smaller wire gages for the same amount of power transfer.

3)

Considering the equation  where  U is the potential energy in units of J (Joules); q is the charge of a  particle in units of C (Coulombs) and V is the electric potential in  units of J/C (Joules per Coulomb); we can say that a positive particle  at some distance away from a negative particle has a certain degree of  potential energy. The same can be said for gravitational potential  energy.
Regarding gravity, PE is energy that is  being stored by an objects position; energy was put into the object or  moved to its position; for every action there is an equal in opposite  reaction thus, we have potential. The PE equation for gravity is very  similar to the electric potential equation where .
Potential difference is everything. When  designing circuitry, electric potential is always accounted for as to  not overdrive any of the components. Additional, if the circuits  requirements are using higher potential differences, the components are  to be adjusted as such (i.e. higher power ratings).
As for real world applications,  simulation software does a pretty good job at presenting data that  assists in any design process. The electric potential can be viewed per  node and adjustments can be made accordingly. Electric potential will be  around forever, and any future technologies will require the use of the  idea of electric potential.

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