Describe how your equation relates to the equation posted.
Find one area in the post you disagree with or that can be improved, and thoughtfully describe your position. Remember to be respectful.
Your response should be at least three paragraphs (with four sentences per paragraph).
my post is :
Maxwell’s Equations state that in a static electric field, the divergence at one point equals to the electric charge volume density at that point divided by a magnetic field. Necessarily, it implies that a rotating magnetic field is produced by an electric current or by an electric field that changes with time (Rahm, 2008). Also, it says that a changing magnetic field that changes with time produces an electric field. In essence, the Equations consist of three other equations such as Gauss, Faraday, and Ampere equations.
Maxwell’s equations in real life can be applied in the explanation of the physics of permanent magnets. It leads to the formulas generating magnetic surface currents that describe the generation of the magnetic field as well as how magnets retain magnetism status. The equations help in the explanation of how the radio frequency waves propagate that lead to communications of all kinds to occur with radio signals and TV transmitters (Rahm, 2008). Besides, the equation explains how the light in the visible regions is capable of creating things like interference patterns that have several usages in optical technology.
Maxwell’s Equations explains the antenna can be designed to get the best signal which is essential for a cell phone that uses radio waves. Play of video games using a computer is made possible because of the equation since it involves changing of electric and magnetic fields (Ishimaru, 2017). Besides, it is applied in the design of a microwave since it helps in knowing where the fields are strong or weak. Finally, the equation allows engineers to know the weight that can make a bridge to crash into the river.
The advancement of technology has created another essential use of Maxwell’s Equations, especially in the health sector. The equation has used in the determination of how body organs produce bioelectric signals. The purpose of electrocardiography, electroencephalography, and electromyography use Maxwell’s Equations in checking of the diseases in different parts of the body (Ishimaru, 2017). Therefore, it is projected that the equation would be used in providing more details about diseases of the brain, heart, and muscles.
reply to those:
Skin Effect on Transmission Lines
The skin effect describes the tendency for AC current to concentrate on the outside of a conductor. As the intensity of the current changes inside the conductor, it produces a magnetic field that rotates perpendicular to the electromotive force. This magnetic field naturally resists the change in current and radiates from the middle of the conductor. This counter-electromotive force pushes the current towards the edges of the conductor and increases its effective resistance as the current is bottle necked by the magnetic field.
Skin depth describes the depth of the current density from the outside of the conductor. This property depends on the frequency of transmission and the conductors electric and magnetic permeabilities. The total current that a conductor can handle will decreases exponentially as the skin depth narrows. This effect has serious implications for both high frequency and high-power applications alike.
Here is an example of how the skin effect can cause problems with efficiency: At 20 KHz, the 12 AWG (d=0.093”) wire will use 75% of the conductor, while the 10 AWG (d=0.115”) wire will only use 68%. This loss in efficiency forces designers to pay close attention to sizing that best suits their frequency of operation. Some of the real-world applications include audio system engineering, long distance transmission, and RF circuits.
AC transmission has been consistently redesigned since its introduction in the late 1800’s. Today, our transmission lines are created by wrapping interlocking copper strips around a hollow core. This structure reduces the weight of the wire, the cost of copper, and strength of the transmission towers. The problem is that engineers are fighting the publics insatiable need for power with incremental technological gains. AC transmission is limited by the skin effect combined with cost of materials. One of the exciting new developments in this field is that engineers are reinvesting in the idea of long distance direct current transmission.
High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) is an example of future applications that attempt to circumvent the limitations of the skin effect. One of the major issues regarding this application is the regulation of continuous current flow. A direct lightning strike on this kind of transmission can cause massive breakdowns in infrastructure, and engineers are diligently working to provide an effective circuit breaker to protect against this kind of problem. Once these kinds of problems are ironed out, we might someday see DC transmission become the leader in long distance transmission.
For this part of assignment, I selected equation that describes behavior of electric charge when Electric field is applied. Equation is F= qE. This equation interests me at this point because it can be linked to mechanical world with concept known as force. While we cannot typically benefit from just E-field, we do benefit from effect of electric field on the charges. Sizable amount of E field converted to current used in systems that convert Electric energy into mechanical energy. Hence relationship or link from Electric force to Mechanical force. Unfortunately, this seemingly direct link jeopardized by energy transfer loss that known as concept of efficiency.
Electrons are particles in conductive material. Electrons are charge particles that can transfer energy from one end of wire to another. For energy transfer to occur, electric field must be applied. Each electron has constant, determined experimentally and theoretically amount of charge equal to 1.6E-19 C. When conductor appear in constant E-field all free electron will be forced to edges of conductor such that sides opposite charges of the E-field source and receiving conductor will balance out. In case of varying polarity or direction of the E-field we will observe change of the polarity in the conductors that happen to be in the E- field. Now what selected equation is actually states is that strength of the E-field will have greater effect on the electrons. This effect of the E field on electrons humans defined as a force.
One application for this equation is in design of electric motors. Electric motors conceptually are as follows. Charged particles in conductor (electrons) when moving, create Electric field that excites in mechanically free to move object charged particles that move to align with current carrying conductor. Charged particles in the object will be motivated to align faster and in the end with greater force when E-field is stronger. Greater E-field creates greater magnetic field which in turn induces E-field. Mechanisms designed to align fields in desired direction of motion and with consideration of aligning perpendicularly to E-field and parallel to magnetic field. This creates class of electromechanical devices.
Application of electric force has expanded during last century exponentially. And yet we are not anywhere close to limit of applications to this charming phenomenon. On example of growing application of Electric force is ability to wirelessly transfer energy on short distances. For consumer application notably would be desire of automotive industry to use higher voltage circuits. In considerations are power circuit with 48Vand higher. This potentially allows for smaller wire gages for the same amount of power transfer.
Considering the equation where U is the potential energy in units of J (Joules); q is the charge of a particle in units of C (Coulombs) and V is the electric potential in units of J/C (Joules per Coulomb); we can say that a positive particle at some distance away from a negative particle has a certain degree of potential energy. The same can be said for gravitational potential energy.
Regarding gravity, PE is energy that is being stored by an objects position; energy was put into the object or moved to its position; for every action there is an equal in opposite reaction thus, we have potential. The PE equation for gravity is very similar to the electric potential equation where .
Potential difference is everything. When designing circuitry, electric potential is always accounted for as to not overdrive any of the components. Additional, if the circuits requirements are using higher potential differences, the components are to be adjusted as such (i.e. higher power ratings).
As for real world applications, simulation software does a pretty good job at presenting data that assists in any design process. The electric potential can be viewed per node and adjustments can be made accordingly. Electric potential will be around forever, and any future technologies will require the use of the idea of electric potential.
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