Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis is a process of cell division in which one cell generates two genetically identical cells. During this process, chromatin condenses into two rod shaped chromosomes making chromatin visible. Conversely, meiosis is a form of cell division that results in four daughter cells, each carrying half the number of chromosomes of parent cells (Elkouby & Mullins, 2017). This process is necessary in sexually reproducing organisms to ensure the same number of chromosome in offspring compared to parents. This paper discuses the differences between mitosis and meiosis I and II, and benefits of genetic variation which results from meiosis.

There are several similarities between mitosis and meiosis. These are; both mitosis and meiosis go through four phases; prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Both of them involve duplication of cell’s DNA. Each strand of chromosome or DNA is replicated and remains attached which yields two sister chromatids for each cell. Both mitosis and meiosis I and II have differences listed as follows:  In mitosis I, the DNA replicates only once for one cell division, to produce two identical daughters whereas in meiosis I, there are two cell divisions that yield un identical daughters. In mitosis II, the cell divides only once, while in meiosis II, the DNA replicates once for two cell divisions.

Genetic variations which result from meiosis give rise to several benefits, some of which are; meiosis transforms diploid cells into four haploid cells with each carrying a single copy of each chromosomes. This process increases genetic diversity of a species. It also provides resistance to diseases. More over, variation results in natural selection that is focused to a particular environment.

The most significant benefit is the provision of resistance to diseases. This is because in the absence of right genetic variation, population evolution will not occur. This brings about a population that can easily be wiped out by an out break of diseases.

Reference

Elkouby, Y. M., & Mullins, M. C. (2017). Coordination of cellular differentiation, polarity, mitosis and meiosis–New findings from early vertebrate oogenesis. Developmental Biology430(2), 275-287.

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