Mineral and Water Function

Major minerals


Calcium is one of the important major mineral required for human development. Calcium is required as it facilitates normal growth and development. It helps keep in the process of bone and teeth formation as well as facilitates the functioning of the nervous system. It has also been found out to help in muscle contraction as well as process of blood clotting. The sources of calcium include milk products, green leafy vegetables, fortified cereals, soya beans, fish and eggs. The deficiency of calcium in the body leads to defective bones and teeth, rickets, and osteoporosis that involve progressive loss of bone mass (Beto, 2015).


Sodium is a major mineral required for the normal functioning of the body. It is essential for the ionic and water balance in the body, muscle contraction, nerves functioning, and is a major component of digestive juices. The main source of this mineral is from the table salt and vegetable. Deficiency of sodium in the body leads to improper muscle contraction, nervous depression, and dehydration (Ward, 2014).

Minor minerals


Iron is one of the minerals required in the body in small quantities. Its main sources include liver, eggs, molasses, cereals, pulses, and leafy vegetables. The mineral is required for the formation of hemoglobin which facilitates the transportation of oxygen. It also acts a co-factor of catalase enzyme. The main deficiency symptom for this mineral is anemia (Ward, 2014).


Iodine is required in the body in small quantity. Its main sources include salt foods, leafy vegetables and iodized salt. Its main function involves enhancing the normal functioning of thyroid and is a component of thyroxin that helps control the basic metabolic rate. Its main deficiency is goiter. Others include cretinism and myxedema (Ward, 2014).


Anemia is one of the most common blood disorders. This condition is said to exist when the blood does not have enough red blood cells which have hemoglobin. The symptoms of the disorder include; pale skin, body fatigue, irregular heartbeat, chest pain, and shortness of breath. The disorder can be fixed by consumption of iron-rich diet that comprises of iron-fortified cereals and bread, dark green leafy vegetables, liver and eggs. Serious cases of anemia may be treated through the use of medicine that helps the body increase the production of red blood cells. Other treatment plan targets the underlying cause of anemia itself which includes use of antibiotics to treat infections or medications to assist women regulate heavy periods in women (Wimbley & Graham, 2011).


Water is the main constituent of the human body. It constitutes the cells, tissues, and organs and for this reason acts as building material for the body. It plays the functions of a solvent, reaction medium, component of reaction, as well as a product of metabolic product. Water also acts as carrier to facilitate the transportation of nutrients and removal of waste products. Water is also essential for the process of thermoregulation. It can also be noted that water acts a lubricant to body parts and shock absorber (Jequier & Constant, 2009).dehydration is said to occur when the loss of the water from the body exceeds the water intake. Water is lost from the body through exhalation, sweat, urine, and stool. The general effects of dehydration to the body include dizziness, weakness, palpitations, confusion, and fainting (Jequier & Constant, 2009).


Beto, J. (2015). The Role of Calcium in Human Aging. Clinical Nutrition Research, 1-8.

Jequier, E., & Constant, F. (2009). Water as an Essential Nutrient: The Physiological Basis of Hydration. European Journal of Clnical Nutrition, 115-123.

Ward, E. (2014). Addressing the Nutritional Gaps with Multivitamins and Mineral Supplements. Nutritional Journal.

Wimbley, T., & Graham, D. (2011). Diagnosis and Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia in the 21st Century. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, 177-184.

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