Question 2: The concept of ‘national media system’ and the concept of ‘hybrid media system’
National media systems are likened to the comparative study due to their relevance in ensuring globalization and technological improvement. It works on various assumptions based on media theories. The theories of the national media systems maintain that national media systems act as a legacy that works on an outdated action. For those who start competing with the set standards regarding the media legacy weaken its importance in relation to the structure of the state and the cultural practices of the media platforms. The media processes and actions are continuously put at the central position in any nation that values the role of media in the general execution of duties and relaying of information (Lauk, 2015). Therefore the national media systems play a great role in ensuring that globalization in a state is achieved thus filling the gaps experienced in media during the execution of duties by the different media personnel. However, governments or states act as the major vital part in ensuring that media platforms and industries work in accordance to the set laws. Globalization, in this case, is achieved through technological improvement and advancements based on the required media content.
The hybrid media systems are greatly dependent on the new technological advancements around the globe. This means the media concepts have revolutionized and reshaped based on the communication technologies being used. The technological changes have created new theories relating to communication and other forms of media. The hybrid media systems are likened to the daily journalists’ practices, worker campaigns and the bloggers in their struggles to achieve new media practices and legislation that value all groups in the society including the marginalized ones. The hybrid media systems also enhance power balance from the states to the media institutions at the same time enhancing the independence of media houses. The hybrid media systems are seen to compare to the ancient and the national systems in terms of how they enhance communication (Ryan, 2016).
To some extent, the different systems have varied disintegrations though they show related patterns that aims at ensuring media legislation are followed and its aims achieved. Goal achievement by the media systems is done through the interactions of both old and the modern media systems. The hybrid media systems are seen to be dependent on the newspapers and magazines, broadcasting platforms and the telecommunications. Through this, therefore, it is evident that the hybrid media systems dominate the current world and the future media industries. It, therefore, needs a professionalized and organized media institution and personnel to ensure that medi8a goals are fully achieved and the legislation adhered to (Tejkalová, de Beer, Berganza, Kalyango Amado, Ozolina and Masduki, 2017. This presents a clear future of the media industry even though some vulnerable groups who will not be able to use the systems due to their inability to understand the complexities involved.
Question 4: Evaluate the idea that ‘history matters’ when comparing media systems.
History can be defined as a long story that relates to a particular group of people that is chronologically organized to ensure that a development of media skills and knowledge is achieved to enhance communication amongst members of a society. To enhance cohesive existence in the society, the different media modes like messages are used to promote interpersonal experiences and relations and improving the economic and political understanding. It is through history that the different media modes exist in the modern communication world. The modern media industry is characterized by models that do not offer relevant and the desired competence of the media industry (McQuail and Windahl, 2015). However, when it is consulted, it offers a glimpse of how the models and the media practices of the past were used in presenting information to the audience. The contexts of how information was conveyed to different types of the audience can be well understood through the consultation of the past practices in relation to their contexts.
The challenges faced in the media industry in the past can be learnt in the present and possible solutions adopted based on how they were solved. It is through the ancient media experiences that new ways of understanding media are understood in today’s world. The ancient history acts as a potential guide to the modern media practices and performance. The code of conduct used in media is well understood through a review of the past published reviews that helped in developing legislation and regulations to guide the media fraternity. When this is clearly understood, the trends and developments in media can be compared and the most suitable ones adopted to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of information provided to the audience. These strategies can be implemented to promote the present and provide a better foundation for the future media fraternity (Hodkinson, 2016).
Based on the institutional history of media, different media perspectives are explained on how they helped shape the general media industry. The films and televisions are detailed with their contribution to the understanding of the information needed for a certain audience. This helps in presenting guidelines to the present media in economic, social and the political understanding. The field history research findings act as a guide to the journalists on the type of information to be collected from the field and how it should be collected. This forms a positive response to the rapidly changing media and communication technologies that enhance consistency of the information provided by the media. This, therefore, presents a promising future to the young generation about the media, what it does and how it does it. If the history concerning media could not be available, it means that communication everywhere could not be effective. History needs to be consulted before or when making comparisons of media (Gotz, Lemish, Moon and Aidman, A. (2014).
Question 6: Political and economic instrumentalization of media in the 21st century
Media in the 21st century is analyzed and understood on the basis of political grounds in relation to liberalism and democracy. Therefore politics are directly linked to media since they define the type of political information to be aired at a certain time. The nature of a country’s democracy is determined and known through the type of information presented to the audience through the use of media devices. The media plays a great role in the transition of the political stand of a nation and vice versa. A country’s democratic nature enhances freedom of all aspects of the state including media (Zhao, 2012)… This makes it possible for media industries to provide information of its choice that relates to the existing political situations. However, in some instances, different democratic structures may occur thus changing the direction of media perception on the type of information to be presented to the audience.
Based on the political stand of a state, the different media forms in a state are highlighted based on new media modes introduced. In situations where sensitive information is relayed to the public, the government may shut such media institutions based on specific political ideologies. Depending on political understanding, the marginalized groups may be protected through the introduction of certain community radio stations and television channels to enable them to air their political stands in the country. This ensures a sense of political acceptance through media communication. The political commonness of a state accepts diverse communication channels and media regardless of religion or culture of the people hence enhancing the general media literacy (Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (2010).
The economic instrumentalization of media in the 21st century focuses on particular factors that aim at ensuring proper messaging conveyance by media platforms including the social networks. This means that media platforms need not privatize their services especially those they do not have authenticity. In any communication or media arena, the 21st century majorly focuses on making money other than achieving their set goals based on their policies. It is therefore needed that there should be no private deal striking with media as determined by the set legislation. This is done to enhance the sense of duty performance but with a major aim of ensuring capital creation through acceptable modes (Hollihan, 2010). The communication devices used in ensuring a closer connection between people in an area should present a tangible outcome of capital creation without using unethical means like corruption and fraud to deceive and provide unreliable information
However, there are instances when communication areas are forced to make payments for streaming particular types of media and information. This is a clear show of incompetence in work performances. In some cases, there are suggestions where online platforms have to pay new publishers who air out their content to an audience just as the same way television companies pay those who make their programmes based on the rights formulated. This makes the cable companies be obscure based on the content they display. In the same way, the social networks make money by selling their advertising spaces through the use of friends to make and air news (Guerrero and Márquez, 2014).
(Guerrero, M., & Márquez, M. (2014). The ‘captured-liberal’model: Media systems, journalism and communication policies in Latin America. International Journal of Hispanic Media, 7, 1-12.
Gotz, M., Lemish, D., Moon, H., & Aidman, A. (2014). Media and the make-believe worlds of children: When Harry Potter meets Pokémon in Disneyland. Routledge.
Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (2010). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. Random House.
Hodkinson, P. (2016). Media, culture and society: An introduction. Sage.
Hollihan, T. A. (2010). Public sentinel: News media and governance reform. Journal of Communication, 60(4).
Lauk, E. (2015). A View from the Inside: The Dawning Of De-Westernization of CEE Media and Communication Research?. Media and Communication, 3(4), 1-4.
McQuail, D., & Windahl, S. (2015). Communication models for the study of mass communications. Routledge.
N. Tejkalová, A., de Beer, A. S., Berganza, R., Kalyango Jr, Y., Amado, A., Ozolina, L., … & Masduki. (2017). In Media We Trust: Journalists and institutional trust perceptions in post-authoritarian and post-totalitarian countries. Journalism Studies, 18(5), 629-644.
Ryan, D. (2016). Understanding digital marketing: marketing strategies for engaging the digital generation. Kogan Page Publishers.
Zhao, Y. (2012). Understanding China’s media system in a world historical context. Comparing media systems beyond the Western world, 143-176.
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