Media Coverage of Terrorism
The International Security and Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan
The International Security Assistance Force was established under the United Nation Security Council 1386 in December 20 2001 as a response to the Afghan authority. The original role of the ISAF was to support Afghan Interim Authority through enhancing security in Kabul. The ISAF expanded its roles as provided by UNSCR 1519 in October 2003, after it became under the command of the North Atlantic Treaty organization. This expansion allowed it to expand its jurisdiction beyond Kabul.
The ISAF was established to focus on helping the Afghan government set up a secure and stable environment, facilitate reconstruction and develop, oversee the development of governance structure and create an atmosphere within which the governance can be enhanced. In the core mission of security, ISAF was to carry out security and stability operations, join forces with the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), assist in the disarmament process, and help in ammunition depots management. To facilitate the reconstruction and development the ISAF was mandated to provide security to create favorable atmosphere for the reconstruction and extension of humanitarian services. In counternarcotic roles the ISAF is required to share information, carry out public campaigns, and train the Afghan forces in counternarcotic.
The ISAF operates under the NATO Supreme Allied Commander-Europe, General James Jones from Spain. The ISAF commander in Afghanistan is Army General John Kingston from Britain. The deputy Commander is Army General Joseph McCord while the chief of staff is Army Maj. General Richard Nugee.
One article identifies the great contribution that he Italian troops of Regional command which are part of the ISAF forces have done in their effort to encourage and support Agriculture. The Italian Troops of task Force Surobo facilitated the drilling of four new wells in the Jegdaleg valley. The inauguration ceremony was attended by the soldiers as well as the local people and their leadership. Another project on development of a wall to hold and store the rain water in an effort to get a solution to the problem of the consistent drought was also initiated. These projects were part of the Agriculture project aimed at delivering trees, agricultural supplies, fodder, and cereals to the member of Surobi Community. The ISAF identified that agriculture was a main source of livelihood in this area and thus the importance of extending help to improve it (North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 2009). Development of agriculture is one way of attaining reconstruction and development efforts.
A famous story on the impact of ISAF on Afghanistan especially on Agriculture is the development and management of the Provincial Reconstruction Teams. These teams provided an important model for future stabilization and reconstruction activities. The PRTs aimed at helping the community members improve their economic capability. The PRTs assisted in filling void experienced between the main components of combat and stabilization operations. The PRTs has three categories of personnel; security such as military; political advisors from Department of State and development experts such as agriculture officers. These PRT groups work to help the community attain their agricultural needs (McNerney, 2006).
Effects of Media Coverage of Terrorists Attacks on Public Opinion of the Government Affairs
Terrorism has effect on the political system of a country. The main way in which terrorism affects the political system is its effects on enhancing variations in the public opinion. The public opinion has been for a long time is attributed to enhancing the process of policy formulation. The governments are unable to resist the pressure arising from the public opinion requiring a string reaction in times of a terror attack. The media coverage in most cases highlights the failures of the government to prevent the occurrences of a terror attack thus affecting the public opinion on evaluation of the performance of the government on security matters. The people’s views are well known to be highly impacted by a terror attack that received a lot of media coverage. The people interpret this as a matter with high perceived importance.
The media coverage has been known to provide “oxygen” for thriving of the terrorists’ agenda. It is important to note that in most case, the terrorists are against the government’s actions and policies. The coverage of the terrorism creates an urge for the public to have more news. When terrorism is said to cause fear and anxiety, more individuals will be more open to support the counterterrorism policies even ones resolving to make use of military force. At other times, the acts of terror being given coverage works pressure the individuals who may have grievances against the government into being against the government and engaging in political violence (Walsh, 2010)
A nation’s efficient response to attacks psychologically influence its citizen
The nation’s ability to respond timely and effectively to terror attacks act to offer psychological security to the citizens of the government’s commitment to safeguard their security. The efficient response indicates the capabilities of how the personal security measure based on the situation awareness. It helps the citizens become aware that the government is aware of the surroundings in which the citizens exist and thus able to react efficiently. The government is able to prove it security muscles as well as the emergency response plans. An efficient response is a sign of the capability of the government to utilize resources effectively. The government’s preparedness to disaster is determined by how well they respond to terror attack. The citizens trust levels with the government are determined through the response rate. Contingency planning is crucial and helps people regain composure as during emergency most tend to be confused and not knowing what to do.
Fear-management Techniques Utilized within the International Arena
The concept of resilience refers the ability to resist sudden change and the capability to regain and return to the position prior to the occurrence of the event. Working towards a resilient society that is able to cope with and recover from a terror attack. The quality of a resilient society helps the community members overcome the negative effects of terrorism such as fear. In counter-terrorism approach indicated a protective factor that buries down the negative impacts of terrorism of people and society. A resilient society has the capacity to proactively adapt to and recover for acts of terrorism. Public resilience means that the communities, corporations, and countries have the capacity to withstand, respond and recover quickly form disturbances. It helps community rise above being vulnerable for terror targets. Such as society has a capacity to assess and attribute meaning to threats. This method fear management is an effective of managing terrorism thus making it difficult terrorist to make a disruptive return for their effort (Bakker & Veldhuis, 2011).
Bakker, E., & Veldhuis, T. (2011). A Future Management Approach to Counter-Terrorism. The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism.
McNerney, M. (2006). Stabilization and Reconstruction in Afghanistan: Are PRTs a Model or a Muddle? Parameters.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (2009). Success Stories from Around Afghanistan. ISAF Mirror, Issue 49.
Walsh, J. (2010). Media Attention to Terrorist Attacks: Causes and Consequences. University of North Carolina.
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