Malignant Cancer –Literature Review

Tumors are either benign or malignant. If they are termed as malignant, they are said to be cancerous, otherwise they are not. The difference between malignant and benign tumors is the way they behave. A malignant tumor is so if it invades and destroys nearby tissues or spreads to other parts of the body. This research paper seeks to identify the key causes of malignant cancer in its various forms and the way forward for the victims of cancer and the general population.

According to a study by Pouryaghoub, Mehrdad, Salehpour, and Shahryari, cancer is the third reason for mortality in Iran. More or less 5-10% of all human growths are thought to be brought on by occupational exposure to cancer-causing agents. Diffuse mesotheliomas of the peritoneum and pleura are viewed as “sign tumors,” or pa-thognomonic of introduction to asbestos. There is likewise prove that nonasbestos agents can affect dangerous mesotheliomas. They performed a study to determine if a bigger population of those diagnosed with malignant cancer had exposure to asbestos.

The study by Pouryaghoub et al. used the data in hospitals to identify, contact and interview a total of sixty patients who had been tested positively with the disease. They then obtained from them information about their occupation, their smoking habits, and place of residence. Further information was obtained from patient data in respective hospitals. The results of the study determined the employments with high dangers of introduction to asbestos and endorsed the relationship between the exposure to asbestos and the frequency of mesothelioma in Iran, similar to different nations. So the consumption of asbestos in Iran, like in twenty different nations in the world should be banned. According to them, professions that are associated with cancer include construction workers, oil company employees, drivers and administrative staff.

Another study by Li et al was carried out to establish the responsibility of notch-1 facilitation in the promotional of malignant cancers. It discovered that the exposure of notch-1 pathways to malignant cancers increased their malignant activities. These activities include multiplying, spreading and adhesion, and colony formation. It also noted the reversal of these activities when the signal was withdrawn. This results show that notch-1 signaling showed a crucial role in promoting malignant cancers. It also shows an opportunity gap where this technology could be used in the fight against cancer.

According to Li et al., (2014) when the prevalence of malignant neoplasm was investigated, it was found that 35.6 percent of gastric cancer patients had close relatives had suffered symptoms of cancer. It was also discovered that 61.9 percent of those who tested positive with malignant neoplasm family history had their cancers in the digestive system. It was also noted that lung cancer was the most prevalent when non-digestive system was concerned.  There was however no correlation between any other clinicopathologic factors such as sex, gender, historical subtypes and age had any significant correlation with malignant neoplasm family history. In this relationship, it was noted that more than a third of gastric cancer patients had a positive malignant neoplasm family history, the most frequent being esophageal and gastric cancers.

 A study by Famulski et al (2013) shows that Malignant mixed tumor (MMT) is a very uncommon cutaneous adnexal carcinoma with a noteworthy risk for belligerent behavior and a tendency for metastasis. This tumor occurs in a wide age array and is double as common in females as in males. MMT shows a preference for the trunk and the extremist’s primary hands and feet. MMT may be clinically confused with many benign and malignant tumors. It is therefore necessary that the histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations be performed for proper diagnosis and treatment. If treated early, there is a high possibility of success.

According to Goéré et al., (2014) the peritoneum stands out amongst the most successive destinations of intermittent gastric carcinoma after therapeutic treatment, regardless of the organization of systematic postoperative or preoperative chemotherapy. Without a doubt, the forecast of peritoneal combined with carcinomatosis fetched at gastric carcinoma keeps on being poor, with an average survival of short of what yearly with programmed chemotherapy. Inasmuch as the anticipation of l carcinomatosis peritonea indulged from colorectal disease has changed with the advancement of by regional standards regulated Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC), existence results after carcinomatosis from gastric malignancy stay disillusioning, giving  five year existence rate of short of what 20%. Imaginative surgical helps, for example, intraperitoneal immunotherapy thusly need to be created for the prompt postoperative moment after overall cytoreductive surgery.

In a late randomized study by Goéré et al. (2014), a clinical impact was acquired after intraperitoneal implantation of catumaxomab in suffering persons with harmful ascites, eminently from carcinoma gastric. A nonhumanized chimeric,  Catumaxomab  immunizer, is described by its special capability to tie to three separate sorts of cells: tumor cells communicating the epithelial cell attachment particle (Epcam), T lymphocytes (Cd3) furthermore embellishment cells (Fcγ receptor). Since the peritoneum incorportaes immunocompetent parts and 90% of carcinomas gastric  indicating  Epcam, intraperitoneal implantation of catumaxomab resulting overall resection of all naturally visible malady (as characterized in the elimination of carcinomatosis in the  colorectal disease) could accordingly proficiently treat minute remaining illness.

Esmaelbeigi et al (2014) noted that one of the challenges of treating oral cancer and other cancers too is the late discovery of the disease. Studies show that early discovery of the disease could often means higher chances of survival. Amongst the most basic recommendations is the creation of awareness campaigns so that people were more reasonable as to report cases early enough. Health care professionals should also adopt a standard procedure for dealing with cancer. This way, they will gain more prowess and experience and hence increase the rates of successful treatment. To do this, health care professionals should be trained. This way, they will be able to produce higher rates of success and be able to diagnose cancer earlier.

Esmaelbeigi et al (2014) argue that while there have been very big steps in the cure of cancer, the most effective method of combating the scourge of cancer is prevention. Cancer is a strange disease. Its prevention goes beyond contracting the disease. Once a patient has been diagnosed with cancer, he must adopt preventive measures what will help in the prevention of the cancer from spreading or worsening. This will often be a continuous process. There are various methods that can be adopted to prevent the next stage of cancer. The most important is healthy habits that would include healthy eating and exercises. Secondly, once the patient has been diagnosed with the disease, physicians should assess it to determine the best procedure for the patient.

Smallbone, Maini & Gatenby, (2010) note that the worst cases occur when the patient has been diagnosed to have malignant cancer. The most important step would be to prevent the disease from turning to invasive tumor growth. Exercises have been identified as especially favorable in this case. However, doctors have also identified means of dealing with the situation. Their article also advocates for the use of transient systemic acidosis as a method that helps to delay critical evolutionary steps of the invasive phenotype. It should however be combined with increased physical exercise.

Harpham, (2001) notes that patients often want fast recovery. With cancer, this is not often the case. For that reason, patients are often lured to gentler methods of dealing with their diseases. These methods are however unproved and based on no scientific evidence. Doctors should participate in ensuring that patients don’t get involved in actions that do not help their recovery efforts by giving them hope and information.

In conclusion, malignant tumors are evidently a problem for everyone. They are best if discovered in the first stage. To ensure that discovery is done early, people should learn as much as possible about cancer. This way, they will be able to tell when they start showing signs of cancer. Health practitioners should also adopt standard procedures for dealing with cancer. This way, they will be able to discover the disease in its early stages as well as be knowledgeable as to handle it.

Another issue that is agreed upon is preventive measures. There are several measures that should be put into place to fight the cancer scourge. First, people should adopt healthy habits. Healthy habits are inclusive of healthy eating and exercising. Once the disease is discovered, proper medical care is vital. It should however go hand in hand with good eating habits and exercises. Governments on the other hand should ban products that emit cancer causing products.

References

Esmaelbeigi, F., Hadji, M., Harirchi, I., Omranipour, R., vand Rajabpour, M., Zendehdel, K., (2014). Factors Affecting Professional Delay in Diagnosis and Treatment of Oral Cancer in Iran. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 17(4) pp. 253-257

 Famulski, W., Kańczuga- Koda, L., Niewiarowska, K., Niksa, M., Maruszak, K., Koda, M., Pryczynicz, A. (2013). Malignant mixed tumor of the skin: a case report and review of the literature. Progress in Health Sciences. 3(1) pp154-158

Goéré, D., Gras-Chaput, N., Aupérin, A., Flament, C., Mariette, C., & Glehen, O. et al. (2014). Treatment of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis by combining complete surgical resection of lesions and intraperitoneal immunotherapy using catumaxomab. BMC Cancer, 14(1), 148. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-148

Harpham, W. (2001). Alternative Therapies for Curing Cancer: What Do Patients Want? What Do Patients Need?. CA: A Cancer Journal For Clinicians, 51(2), 131-136. doi:10.3322/canjclin.51.2.131

Li, L., Zhao, F., Lu, J., Li, T., Yang, H., Wu, C., & Liu, Y. (2014). Notch-1 Signaling Promotes the Malignant Features of Human Breast Cancer through NF-κB Activation. Plos ONE, 9(4), e95912. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095912

Pouryaghoub, G., Mehrdad, R., Salehpour, S., & Shahryari, M. (2014). Exposure to asbestos in patients with malignant mesothelioma in Iran. Tehran University Medical Journal, 72(2), 79–86. Smallbone, K., Maini, P., & Gatenby, R. (2010). Episodic, transient systemic

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