Section 1- Biblical Foundations
Quote 1, Psalm 106: 3: Blessed are they that keep judgment, and he that doeth righteousness at all times.
Quote 2, Isaiah 1:17, Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.
Quote 3, Proverbs 21:15, It is joy to the just to do judgment: but destruction shall be to the workers of iniquity.
Quote 4, Proverbs 21:3: To do justice and judgment is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice.
Quote 5, Genesis 18:19: For I know him, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord, to do justice and judgment; that the Lord may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken of him.
Quote 6, Psalm 89:14, Justice and judgment are the habitation of thy throne: mercy and truth shall go before thy face.
Quote 7, Jeremiah 22:15; Shalt thou reign, because thou closest thyself in cedar? did not thy father eat and drink, and do judgment and justice, and then it was well with him?
Quote 8, 1 Kings 10: 9; Blessed be the Lord thy God, which delighted in thee, to set thee on the throne of Israel: because the Lord loved Israel forever, therefore made he thee king, to do judgment and justice.
Section 2- Societal Need
In 1923, Judge Learned Hand stated that “Our criminal procedure has always been haunted by the ghost of the innocent man convicted.” This indicates the proliferation of injustice in the injustice system. A report by National Register of Exonerations indicated that in 2015 the number of people cleared for crimes that they did not commit was 149, an increase from 139 people exonerated in 2014. This marked a high increase relative to 2005 where only 61 people got exonerated (The National Registry of Exonerations, 2016) The rate of exonerations was noted to be higher in death sentence than any other category of criminal convictions. While death sentences are only responsible for 1% of the prison sentences, they have been noted to account for about 12% of known exonerations between 1989 and 2012 (Gross et al., 2014).
The injustice of exoneration is far much biased against African Americans. It has been indicated that as at 2016, African American accounted for 47% of the 1900 cases exonerated as per the list held by National Registry of Exoneration. In murder cases, false exoneration is closely linked to race of the victim. Only 15% of murders by African American have white victims, but it has been observed that 31% of the African Americans are falsely convicted of killing white Americans (National Registry of Exonerations, 2017). It has been observed that innocent black people are more likely to get wrongfully convicted for crimes that they did not commit than innocent white people. For rate of racial disparity in wrong conviction between African Americans and white is influenced by nature of crime where; in murder cases a black person in 7 times likely to be convicted, 3.5 times for sexual assault cases and 12 times for drug crimes (National Registry of Exonerations, 2017).
DNA evidence has proved to be an important factor in exoneration of wrongfully accused people. DNA was a factor in 23% of child sex abuse exonerations, 84% in adult sexual assault exoneration, 30% of homicide exonerations, and 10% of exonerations for non-homicidal crimes of violence other than rape (Gross & Shaffer, 2012).
The cases of estimated false convictions are not an occurrence that occurs in USA. It has been found out that 9 out of 22 countries that executed prisoners last year also exonerated death row inmates. This implies that at least 40% of the nations that allows capital punishment sentenced the wrong people to death. Amnesty International indicated that in 2014, about 112 people all over the world became cleared of crime as there waited to be executed (Purtill, 2015).
Amnesty International is a global organization comprised of approximately 7 million people who are dedicated to tackling issues of injustice. The organization aims to promote a world where every individual enjoys human rights prescribed. To achieve this mandate, the Amnesty International works by: investigating and exposing facts on occurrences of injustice, lobbying governments and other influential group to adhere to and respect international la w, run campaigns for change, and enhancing public awareness through education and training. The organization manages to bring changes to unjust systems by engaging in in research to gain accurate date, advocacy & lobbying where they seek to influence the governments and companies to make the right decision, and conducting campaigns through petitions, letters, protest to push for change to happen. Amnesty International has Impact and Learning System that measures the delivery of programs at national regional and global level. The systems seeks to enhance strategy adaptation, collaborative analysis of successes and failures, and assessing external feedback (Amnesty International, 2017).
The Center for Justice and Accountability (CJA) is guided by a mission that states that, “To deter torture, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other severe human rights abuses around the world through innovative litigation, policy, and transitional justice strategies. CJA strives to achieve a world where justice thrives. The organization partners with the victims and survivors to help them in their fight for truth, justice, and redress. The organization has for the last two decades, succeeded in bringing human rights abusers to justice. The effort of CJA have assisted in the formulation of laws that promote international human rights. Its innovative strategies HAVE helped holder the human rights abusers to account and have also succeeded through its policy advocacy that provide civil and criminal remedies. These efforts have helped uphold human rights all over the world (The Center for Justice & Accountability, 2018). To evaluate its performance the CJA has develop a key legal doctrine that sets standards for International human rights prosecution. CJA also measure its performance on the basis of the cases that they win against the perpetrators of human rights abusers
The World Justice Project (WJP) is an independent, multi-disciplinary organization that seeks to promote the rule of law all over the world. It holds the view that effective rule of law reduced corruption, combats poverty and diseases, and subsequently protects people from all forms of injustice. The World Justice Project is guided by the mission of having “a world comprised of rule of law communities delivering equity, opportunity, and peace.” The WJP used a multidisciplinary approach that includes original research and data, active and global network, and practical and locally led- initiatives to advance the rule of law all over the world. The WJP works with scholars in its Research and Scholarship wing under the Rule of Law Research Consortium. Through its efforts, the WJP has developed a law index that has earned it recognition as a leading soured of primary data on the rule of law. WJP has been effective in its engagement efforts through regional forums and national workshops where advocated collaborating in learning about rule of law, creation of networks and developing design pragmatic solution to rule of law challenges (World Justice Project, 2018). The WJP has developed a Rule of Law Index that measures how the rule of law is experienced on different parts of the world. The Index is essential in noting the trend on the adoption of rule of law among different countries (Koury, 2015).
Gross, S. R., & Schaffer, M. Exonerations in the United States, 1989–2012: Report by the National Registry of Exonerations. June 2012. Table 13.
Gross, S. R., O’Brien, B., Hu, C., & Kennedy, E. H. (2014). Rate of false conviction of criminal defendants who are sentenced to death. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(20), 7230-7235.
Koury, M. (2015). 2015 World Justice Project Rule of Law Index Relased. Retrieved from https://constantinecannon.com/whistleblower/2015-world-justice-project-rule-of-law-index-released-us-ranks-no-19/#.WwWGfEiFPIU
National Registry of Exonerations. (2017). RACE AND WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. Retrieved from https://www.law.umich.edu/special/exoneration/Documents/Race_and_Wrongful_Convictions.pdf
Purtill, C. (n.d.). The US isnt the Only Country that Sentenses Innocent People to Death. Retrieved from PRI: https://www.pri.org/stories/us-isn-t-only-country-sentences-innocent-people-death#comments
The Center for Justice & Accountability. (2018). Mission & History. Retrieved from https://www.cja.org/who-we-are/mission-and-history/World Justice Project. (2018). About Us. Retrieved from https://worldjusticeproject.org/about-us
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