Human Relations and Race

Institutional racism: it an outline of social organizations -like banks, the court of laws, and schools- offering negative treatment to a group of individuals based on their race.  This kind of racism results in inequality; sociolinguists employ the notion to explain why some individuals face disparate treatment.

Political racism: this refers to the manner in which particular groups of individuals may get subjected to horror.  This is carried out so as put them off from being in certain political parties or them voting for certain candidates.  An example in united states history of presidents, where the first black person got elected after struggling for long that saw the minorities not able to elect a preferred president successfully. This discrimination of people basing on their races so as to deny them political chances is political racism. Also, people may be hostile towards the minor groups due to their stands in politics, and they carry out anything in their power to make them not to vote.

Economic racism:  this is discriminating done to the people of color by the whites in job opportunities and salary. For instance, immigrants get obliged to carry out several jobs that do not pay sufficiently since they cannot secure jobs in the formal sectors.  And this is because they are not natives of that particular country. Hence, economic racism refers to the manner in which groups of individual get singled out when it comes to acquiring of jobs. It is done to make sure they do not reach the same economic status with the natives. This forms a notion that a particular group of individuals is wealthier than others and thus better than them.

Housing racism: it is discrimination in which a person or family receive when they try to lease, buy, rent or finance a home based on particular characteristics like religion, race, national origin, sex, class, and family status. Also, it is the manner in which people of color and people with low wages get isolated from residing in urban hoods.  It is also how particular groups of individuals prefer to live in a particular neighborhood and would deny any trial of other people who would want to live in that place. This results in individuals getting denied housing due to their color.

Legal racism:  it refers to how some people can get exposed to unjust justice through the police or court of law. This comprises mistrials that oblige a person to get utilized as a sacrificial lamb for something they did not carry out.  Also, it entails a particular group of individuals getting arrested and prosecuted unlawfully because of the opinion that other individuals have about them. For instance, a policeman stopping a driver who is an immigrant to demand for their immigration documents. And if they do not have them at that particular moment they get arrested and detained instantly instead of giving them 24 hours to present them to the authorities.

Educational racism:  it refers to the manner in which particular people get discriminated upon based on the guesses of skills that the rest have about them in a system of multicultural education. This seems to label a particular customs as being better than the rest, and even would result in the other being needed to get out of the school so as to register high scores just in examinations.  Also, this term would get used to referring to the manner in which educational system may get set to be a monoculture, so as to deny others an opportunity to get an education.

Cultural racism: it refers to the belief that lives in particular groups of people that seem to make people develop a negative opinion about the rest cultural groups. It comprises stereotyping the traditions and norms linked with cultures of other individuals and tending to think that one’s culture is powerful to others. This results in people treating each other unjustly based on the supposition they already based on their culture rather than taking them as independent person. Also, it can be used to refer to the manner in which individuals in the same traditions would criticize each other for attempting to adapt or follow different culture.

Medical racism:  it refers to the manner in which people belonging to a particular race may get awarded better treatment standards than the rest. This is accredited to the feelings that the health practitioner have towards various groups of individuals, which make them offer treatment differently basing on the manner they think particular groups respond to treatment than the rest.

 Difference between racism and prejudice

Racism implies being aggressively invested or giving support to continued racial, ethnic structure in which somebody’s group dominates. This implies that any other individual of any other group can get singled out from the group’s activities; it may be social, political or economic. For example, Archie came from a low, middle class, and because of his social status he did not have said where he lived however he was a racist. This was due to him being a white man; he felt that being white made him greater to anybody else who was not white. For that reason, prejudiced can be said to be an individual response to a circumstance that is based or a person, on observation or experience, justly or unjustly. Hence, one can state that prejudice is the preconception of a circumstance or individual from the fact that he felt that the white people were greater to any other community that is not white. And that was the usual order of doing things.

After defining the two terms, one can discuss the racism anatomy. What causes racism? Hence, there are three factors that can get accredited to racism fear, genetics, and tribalism. Genetics- from the readings of the bible, we are told that a human being got created the same. Referring to this statement, it implies that people should be the same without the variations of the color, culture and ethnicity. Nevertheless, this is not the case individuals evolved to be to bring the lack of concern for the world. If for example, we could all be the same having similar characteristics the world would not be the same comparing to that people live presently.  Racism happens because of the difference in genetic variations that are among phenotypes.  If all human received equal treatment, there would be racism, heritable variety is important to life.

Tribalism- so as to understand this phenomenon we get the idea of animal kingdom from the biology class, it is believed that for the continuation of species, they have got ways of survival that is survival of the fittest. Combining racism and the theory of the animal, it is easier to comprehend that surviving is easier as a group and not as a person. The white people separated themselves from a group so as to be greater than the blacks. Hence, dynamics of groups is important to any species survival.

Fear- it can be referred to as feeling nervous about a credible circumstance or a particular event. The demography of the world is divided into two groups of individuals, every group having various uniqueness and traits. This aspect seems to make one category or the other view each other as foreign, aliens and, above all, a threat to the way they live. In United States, during the period of migration, the numbers of guests were less but when they developed significantly in a way that they unavoidable. The white people were superior, and they did not respect the black people since they were inferior.

 White skin privilege is not a thing that the white people create, do or enjoy intentionally. Unlike the obvious institutional and personal demonstration of racism, white skin privilege is a clear inclination for whiteness that saturate in the society. White skin privilege performs various functions. First, it offers white people with “bonus” that people of color do not get to enjoy. Second, it generates real benefits for us. White individuals get protected from a lot of challenges. Lastly, white privilege shapes the place in which we live in; that is the manner in which people interact and navigate with each other in the world.

The perks of the white privilege, white people get all types of perks due to their function of their skin privilege. The perks include:

  • When one cuts his or her finger and goes to the office or the school’s first aid kit, the flesh colored band –aid usually matches one’s skin tone.
  • When one stays I an inn, the complimentary shampoo usually works with one’s hair texture.
  • One can buy travel size bottles of one’s hair care products at drug stores of grocery.
  • When an individual goes to the shop to purchase pantyhose at the eleventh-hour, the nude color usually looks nude on one’s legs.

My dad, who has worked in economic development for a long period, would explain the above examples of white privilege as easy functions of demand and supply economics. White people still comprise the numerical majority in America. Hence, it makes sense, and, for instance, that band-aid firm would produce flesh tone bandages for the white people only. Even when I choose to give in to his argument, still, it does not alter the effect of these white privileges.  As a white, I get particular perks that individuals of the color do not get; I receive the pantyhose, bandages, and the shampoo at the inn that works well with my hair. And at the grocery store, I do not have to search the aisles to get my hair products.  One will get them in a section named hair skin. This is the manner in which I experience the world. Also, these seemingly compassionate perks portray risk on a closer evaluation. Let us I forgot to carry my shampoo with me, and I am on a holiday vacation. When I reach the hotel or inn, I get the complimentary shampoo does not match what I usually use but instead pink oil lotion for black American hair. I would not be amazed and may even think loudly: those black fellows and their lobbying…” a white person feels he or she is entitled to the perks.

 Reverse racism is not real, and it is just a myth since we reside in a culture that gives support and imposes whiteness as the norm and people of the color as other. If one experiences bigotry, prejudice, or discrimination, it is applicable to get offended by it and would need to speak about it. It is not suitable to declare that it is reverse racism, and not suitable to declare that it is racism on equivalence with something like institutionalized racism that people of color will get in contact with. When a white fellow begins speaking about reverse racism, what they are doing is derailing the talk to turn it about them. Their white privilege makes them think that what they say matters and require to get listened, since, it is vital, and the talk should stop focusing on their perceived ills.  When someone speaks about racism they have had an experience, the talk is not about them, nor should they expect it to be. Hence, one should stop derailing and listen and learn. When a white fellow protest about experiencing reverse racism, what he or she is complaining about is being deprived of their already existing privileges. And whereas it may feel awful to recognize one’s privilege is collapsing and the things one has taken for granted can get taken away from them, it is untrue, unjust, and devious to name that experience reverse racism.

African American: there are several unrequited questions surrounding the effects of racism on African American families- from the experience of one family member to the manner in which that experience impact the rest of the family. Even though, there are several studies carried out documenting he continued the effect of racism on African Americans.  For instance, let us assume that a father of an African-American family gets denied a job because of racism. What kind of feeling will he bring home? The feeling of resentment, depression or anger is what they would feel.  The research evaluated 67 studies out of 18,141 Africans in America and it found out that the  psychological response of the African American on racism were the same to ordinary responses to trauma, like somatization that is a psychological suffering portrayed in ways like anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and physical pain. And the research found out that people who said they had stressful experiences of racism were probably to report mental distress.

Latin America:  throughout Latin America, nations have long wanted to declare immunity from the racial division that plague throughout the world. Racial identification in Latin America is normally complex and fluid than in America. Hence, individuals with similar physical appearance and color may choose to classify in different ethnic-racial classes.  Racism in the United States has led to the Latinos to internalizing racism. This was a result of external racism that the white people have forced on the Latinos. Internalized racism show itself in the manner in which the Latinos see other Latinos. To determine this point, many of the Latino communities feel that Latino immigrant is consumed to the social services. Additionally, the internalized racism show itself at a personal level, for instance, almost half of all Hispanic see themselves as Whites. A number of the Latinos seem to bind an exceptional deal to the darkness of somebody’s color.

When one hears about racism, several people think of Hispanic or African American. However, there is a whole other race in America who goes through racism on every level without a real sense of fairness, and it American Indian. Racism goes beyond just the black and the whites. American Indian has experienced a lot of racism in the United States. Even though several individuals overlook or excuse the settler’s behavior, this was Indians home before Christopher Columbus. Contest to the famous belief, Christopher did not discover America; already the Indians named it vast land home.  And just like any individual defending their homeland, the Indians battled to sustain their land. It looks a shame that Indian Americans get subjected to racism in a nation they call their own. American Indians are a victim of violence by the rest of other races. According to the United States justice department, through its admission, crimes against Indian Americans go unpunished. It states that some of the issues are reporting the crimes by the Indians. However, they confess the police officers countrywide are not equipped with the sufficient knowledge required to fight crime surrounded by native tribes. It occurs several times since tribal people reside on reservations; local police officers are hesitant or get discouraged from acting to crimes against natives.  In effect, it leaves several tribes policing themselves that can be hard due to tribal ties.

Jews:  According to survey carried out in America depicted that more than half of Americans population saw the Jews as dishonest and greedy. The polls showed that several Americans thought the Jews were too powerful in America.  Another research showed that around 35 to 40% of the people were prepared to carry out an anti-Jewish campaign.  A big percentage believed that Jews are different, and they should get restricted, and some believed they should get deported.

Arabs: Arab Americans to date still face discrimination in workplaces, schools, airports, media, and during crossing of the border into the United States. Arab Americans get mistreated by the state and local police by being detained unlawfully and racial profiling.

Muslim Americans: the Muslims, who reside in the United States, have face hate crimes. They have experienced an increase in negative stereotypes that get expressed by the bigger society. Since the incidence of 9/11, the Muslim American has been left to increase religious and racial animosity.

            The term racialization is of importance in understanding how the history of the notion of race is still with people, impacts them, even though differently.  The term emphasizes the ideological and the systematic, normally unconscious process at work.  Also, it emphasizes on how racial groups get built, and this includes whiteness, but culturally and socially very real.  Racialization is a difficult and contradictory process whereby groups come to get chosen as being of a certain race and on that grounds subjected to various and unequal treatment.  Whereas the white individuals also get racialized, often, this process get rendered not visible or normative  to the people chosen as white, and as such, white fellows may not view themselves as part of the race but yet having the power to name and racialize the rest.

The method by which individuals get identified by racial characteristics is a cultural and a social process, as well as a personal one.  That is; a social order may racialize a category of people through coverage of media, political action, and the generation of a universal consensus in the public about that particular group. A person may racialize another person or a group of certain actions, for instance asking invasive questions, crossing the street, or avoiding eye contact, that is chosen the target person or group as abnormal.  Racialization can get referred to as a fluid process. A certain community may get racialized at a certain point in history but later pass into whiteness for example Italian Canadians. Also, Whites and Whiteness can get racialized however that process should combine anti-racist and principles of an alliance so that the whiteness get perceived as a power base, and not as  a target.

 The Race is a folk taxonomy, and not a science. The variables that get utilized in organizing are things like hair texture and skin color, which are arbitrary choices. A case can get generated that the notion of discrete Asian, American, African and European races likely came from the medieval theory that distinction in behaviors of people showed imbalances in the four humors, that is red, black, white and yellow.  Also, a belief in distinct races may have arisen from a change from overland travel by the caravans to the utilization of ocean going watercraft during the 15th century.  Before this era, voyagers moving to Overland and sailors making numerous landfalls would have observed steady changes in the appearance of the human beings they came across. With long voyages and fewer regular landfalls, variations emerged more severe, resulting in categorical models of people difference such as race. Several racial categorizations of humans postdate this advancement in the transportation of marine. Whatever their origins, racial categorical are not informed by previous knowledge or forceful evidence that the physical characteristics are biologically important.  There are geographical variations in human biology and possibly, in vulnerabilities to certain diseases. But viewing these variations as meaningfully planned around race is an interruption from the search for the real physiological, economic and social causes of these illnesses.

How whiteness is developed

Whiteness is grown in people’s mind as they grow. As kids, the white kids will mature as they enjoy all the privileges that are given them due to their color. They will not know why things happen like they do but once they get to adolescence they begin creating their identities. At this point, they understand they are white, and the rest are not, and now they can connect with what they have experienced as children.  At this point they comprehend about the reason individuals of color do not have the same privileges that they have, and this is the manner in which they create identity of being white, and they discover to relate with their own. The same thing happens with children of the color. All their lives they have been treated unfairly until they get used to it and when they comprehend why it occurs, they get to know it is because they have a different color. Also, they start forming relationships with other minorities because they are the ones who can treat them the same. Thus, whiteness is developed in the growth stage of children, and at the time of adolescence they create their identity; they get to know the effects of being a white person in their lives.

Is race scientifically

It is true race is real scientifically, for example, when one looks around the capital cities, one will probably see various kinds of humanity; surfaces of hair varying from smooth and straight to bulky and stiff, tones of skin varying from white to black.  Individuals employ such physical characteristics like these along with shared traditions and geographic foundation to group themselves and the rest of races. Researchers that have been carried out in the past, they have shown that around 89% of the human inherited difference happen within inhabitants residing on a certain continent.  Whereas the other 11% of variation differentiates continental populations. This implies that individuals from the various population are somewhat different compared to an individual from the similar population. Hence, people can easily get differentiated from each other.

To get to know the extent of connections in groups, scientists have employed geneticist which depend on small difference in the DNA, which can be particularly basing on the series of base pairs which are main building blocks for the DNA. Like scientists have evaluated the full set of DNA, they have acknowledged a lot of polymorphisms successfully. The polymorphisms in various populations mirror the history of those populations and the consequences of natural selection. That implies, to differentiate a race, the heritable polymorphism would be the one that is found in the group members and not present in members of the various group. The result of the research has shown that genetic evaluation can be utilized to distinguish races according to their geographic origin.

There are a lot of proof that race can be real. Race being a legitimate biological notion and which refers to significant quantifiable differences between groups of individuals. Also, it has been proved that these physical components vary by race. For instance, Native Americans probably have blood group B than the rest of the groups. The black people have a high chance in blood dialysis than the whites. The Jews have a high dominance of Tay-Sachs illness than normal. (Christie, 2013)

Role of brain in shaping a racist mindset

The brain is helpful in mounting a negative mindset because it results to a person developing a profiling feeling towards a different race. As a kid, the community in which they reside in assist a lot in shaping the beliefs of that kid. Thus, if a white kid has frequently been told that blacks are linked with drugs and violence, the kid will form a metal profiling for the black people as evil people and will have a phobia of being around them at any time. This is due to having a belief that the black people are not moral, and it is hard for them to alter their sentiments regarding them even as they mature.  The brain has already adapted to the belief and nothing apart that would tend to be true to them. These variations in views, individuals of various races will also seem to carry out things differently, and this implies that the brain is an important factor in adding to the mindset.

How are racialization, racial inferiority and superiority shaped in the United States?

The Race goes on to be the major planning principle in United States society. During the civil rights movement period, the immense attempts of Asian Americans, African American, Hispanic, Asian American got attention, and there was a universal agreement that there would be a need for educational reforms. After the period of civil rights movement, the legal, political and pedagogical discourse within the race has changed significantly.  After the supreme courts judging a case of a board of education versus Brown hassled to changes in the society that took place from that time. The decision that the court made followed by political and the rest of efforts of color communities have developed access to self-governing rights. This has got enabled by a number o reforms that got endorsed by Congress that offered known structure for the execution of liberal moral about racial fairness.

Does pigmentation affect whiteness or blackness?

Pigmentation does not have anything to do with being regarded as black or white. Even though the common racism description would get directed to the color of the skin, it all about the representation of the mind of a person on whom they are. The society mental representation of where one lives in and who resides in it with them makes a person grow and hold that entity. The treatment that the black people and the white people get is the ones that establish somebody’s association.  Since they do not receive the same treatment, the blackness, and the whiteness is recognized through these actions but not the color of the skin or pigmentation.

Works cited

Rothenberg, P.  S. Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study. 4th ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Print.

Wheeler, A. J. Racism : a selected bibliography. New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2005. Print

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