History of the Philippines

CONTRIBUTION AND ACHIEVEMENTS General Emilio Aguinaldo (January 23, 1899 – April 1, 1901) To make it easier for you to master, always remember why Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was on the 5-peso bill (which is not used anymore, instead his head-profile is on the 5-peso coin) bearing the Philippine flag at the celebration of the Philippine Independence Day, it’s because he was the first president of the Philippines First Republic (a. k. a. Malolos Republic). Contributions and Achievements of Emilio Aguinaldo: * first president * youngest president – he became the country’s leader at age 28 * longest-lived president – he died when he was 94 (wow! * one of the active leaders of KKK * signed the Pact of Biak na Bato * known as the President of the Revolutionary Government * he fought against the Spanish and American to retain our independence 2Manuel L. Quezon (November 15, 1935 – August 1, 1944) Notable facts about Manuel Luis Quezon is that, he is known as the “Father of National Language” (Ama ng Wikang Pambansa) and he died in Saranac Lake, New York due to tuberculosis. I’ve seen his life-sized wax statue inside the Quezon Memorial Circle, it was well crafted. Contributions and Achievements of Manuel L. Quezon: first Senate president elected as President of the Philippines * first president elected through a national election * first president under the Commonwealth * he created National Council of Education * he initiated women’s suffrage in the Philippines during the Commonwealth * he made Tagalog / Filipino as the national language of the Philippines * he appears on the twenty-peso bill * a province, a city, a bridge and a university in Manila were named after him * his body lies within the special monument on Quezon Memorial Circle 3 Jose P. Laurel (October 14, 1943 – August 17, 1945)
Laurel was the third to sit at the office during Japanese occupation of World War II. He was the only Filipino president to have been shot outside of combat. Contributions and Achievements of Jose P. Laurel: * he was considered as the legitimate president of the Philippines * he organized KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas). * he declared Martial Law in 1944 * he and his family developed the establishment of Lyceum of the Philippines 4. Sergio Osmena (August 1, 1944 – May 28, 1946) Sergio Osmena was the second president of the Commonwealth; he succeeded Quezon after his death.
Contributions and Achievements of Sergio Osmena: * he was 65 when he became president– making him the oldest president to hold office * he was the first Visayan to become president * he joined US Gen. Douglas McArthur in Leyte on October 20, 1944 starting the freedom of the Philippines from the Japanese during World War II * during his time, the Philippine National Bank has been rehabilitated and the country joined the International Monetary Fund * on his time, the Bell Trade Act was approved by the US Congress * Sergio Osmena appears on the 50 peso bill Manuel Roxas (May 28, 1946 – April 15, 1948) Roxas was the fifth president of the Philippines overall but he was considered as the third and last president under the Commonwealth and the first of the Third Republic of the Philippines. He only sat in the office for 1 year, 10 months and 18 days. Contributions and Achievements of Manuel A. Roxas: was inaugurated as the new and first president of the new Republic because the Philippines was finally free after the WW II * in his time, the country has started reconstruction from war damage and the Philippines started breathing without foreign rule * under his term, the Philippine Rehabilitation Act and Philippine Trade Act laws were accepted by the congress * he is in the 100 peso bill 6,Elpidio Quirino (April 17, 1948 – December 30, 1953) He was the vice president at Roxas time. He became president when the latter died in 1948. Contributions and Achievements of Elpidio Quirino: under his term Hukbalahap movement was active * he created Social Security Commission * he also created Integrity Board to monitor graft and corruption * in 1948, Quezon City was the capital of the Philippines * peso and dollar exchange rate at his time was 1 US = P2 7. Ramon Magsaysay (December 30, 1953 – March 17, 1957) He was born in Iba, Zambales, was a military governor, and engineer. He died on a plane crash on Dec. 1957, boarding the presidential plane named “Mt. Pinatubo Contributions and Achievements of Ramon Magsaysay: * was a chairman of the Committee on Guerilla Affairs was the first president sworn into office wearing Barong Tagalogin his inauguration * his presidency was referred as the Philippines’ Golden Years for it was the cleanest and zero-corruption * the Philippines was ranked 2nd in Asia’s clean and well-governed countries * he established National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) among his agrarian reforms 8,Carlos P. Garcia (March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1961) Another lawyer, Carlos P. Garcia was a poet, teacher, and guerilla leader too. Born from Bohol, he was the vice president of Magsaysay and secretary of Foreign Affairs for 4 years.

He became president when Magsaysay died in 1957. Contributions and Achievements of Carlos P. Garcia * he was known for “Filipino First Policy” * he established the Austerity Program focusing on Filipino trade and commerce * was known as the “Prince of Visayan Poets” and the “bard from Bohol” * cultural arts was revived during his term * was the first president to have his remains buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani 9. Diosdado Macapagal (December 30, 1961 – December 30, 1965) He was born in Lubao, Pampanga, Diosdado Macapagal is the father of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, the 14thand second woman president of the Philippines.
He was a lawyer and a professor, too. Contributions and Achievements of Diosdado Macapagal: * he established the first Land Reform Law * he placed the Philippines currency – peso, on the currency exchange market * he made June 12 1898 as the Philippines’ Independence Day * he signed the Minimum Wage Law * he signed the creation of the Philippine Veteran’s Bank 10,Ferdinand Marcos (December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986) Born from Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was a lawyer and Senate President for 3 years.
He was president for 21 years and only quit office after the People Power Revolution. His wife, Imelda Marcos became quite popular in the world too. His term was the most controversial and messy one because of Martial Law and People Power although Marcos has contributed a lot of nice things in the Philippines. He was one of the best and brightest presidents even though their family was rumored to have embezzled public funds to Switzerland and other wealthy countries. Contributions and Achievements of Ferdinand Marcos: * he was the first president to win a second term * he declared Martial Law on Sept. 2, 1972 * he increased the size of Philippine military and armed forces * in 1980, GNP was 4 times greater than 1972 * in 1986, the Philippines was one of the most indebted countries in Asia * he built more schools, roads, bridges, hospitals and infrastructures than all former presidents did combined * is the only president whose remains interred inside a refrigerated crypt 11. Corazon Aquino (February 25, 1986 – June 30, 1992) The first woman president of the Philippines and the first woman president in Asia, Cory Aquino is the wife of Benigno Aquino Jr. (who was assassinated during Marcos regime).
She was born in Paniqui, Tarlac Contributions and Achievements of Corazon Aquino: * was named “Woman of the Year” in 1986 by Time magazine * first woman president of the Philippines and Asia * she’s known to bring back democracy in the country * she abolished 1973 Marcos Constitution brought the new Constitution of the Philippines * she reorganized the structure of the executive branch of government * signed the Family Code of 1987 and 1191 Local Government Code * she always initiated charitable and social activities helping the poor and the needy * she’s been cited as a modern-day Joan of Arc by many she is in the new 500 peso bill together with her husband Ninoy Aquino she has received great honors and awards such as one of: * 100 Women Who Shaped World History * 20 Most Influential Asians of the 20th Century * 65 Great Asian Heroes * a recipient of J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understandin 12. Fidel V. Ramos (June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1998) FVR was the chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines before he became president. Unknown to many, he’s also a civil engineer. He brought back economic growth and stability in the country in spite of the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997.
He is the first and only non-Catholic president of the Philippines. Contributions and Achievements of Fidel V. Ramos * during his time, the Philippines was cited as Asia’s Next Economic Tiger because he brought back economic growth * the Philippines celebrated Centennial Independence in 1998 * he’s the only Filipino who received British Knighthood from the United Kingdom, bestowed by Queen Elizabeth II (Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George) * he led the 4th APEC Summit held in the Philippines his “Philippines 2000” vision made the Philippine Stock Exchange one of the best in the world in the mid-90s * Death Penalty was reinstated at his time * he signed peace talks and agreement with the MNLF 13. Joseph Estrada (June 30, 1998 – January 20, 2001) Known as Erap, he was the first president who was a famous film actor. His governance had so many downs due to controversies, impeachment and slow economic growth. I think he’s the first president who has been impeached and the second one who was forced to leave the office because of People Power III in Edsa.
Philippine economy was at its worst because of leadership uncertainty. Contributions and Achievements of Joseph “Erap” Estrada: * during his time, the MILF’s headquarters and camps were captured * he joined other leaders and politicians who supported against the Charter Change * was cited as one of the Three Outstanding Senators in 1989 * was among the “Magnificent 12” who voted for the termination of the Philippines and US Military Bases Agreement from Clark Airbase and Subic Naval Base 14.
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (January 20, 2001 – June 30, 2010) Gloria Arroyo, daughter of ex-president Diosdado Macapagal, was the second female president of the Philippines. She was 14 when she moved and lived in the Malacanang Palace. Oakwood Mutiny occurred on her term. There were also lots of messy controversies against Gloria like impeachments and the Hello Garci disgrace but Gloria has known to have contributed big record for road, bridges infrastructures and higher economic growth than the past 3 presidents term did.
Amid the 2008 global financial crisis, the Philippines still had an impressive GDP growth and it was so hard to keep it afloat but she did. Contributions and Achievements of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo: * second female president of the country * first and only female vice-president of the Philippines so far (to date) * first president to had oath taking outside Luzon an ex-professor of Economics at the Ateneo de Manila University where Noynoy Aduino was one of her students * an ex-classmate of former US president Bill Clinton at Georgetown University’s Walsh School of Foreign Service where she maintained Dean’s list status * she regained higher economic growth than the past 3 presidents before her * Philippine economy grew at its fastest in 3 decades in 2007, GDP exceeding 7% growth * US ex-president Bill Clinton cited Gloria’s “tough decisions” because of her brilliant strategy to make the country’s economy back in shape amidst the 2008 global financial crisis * Peso became the best performing currency of the year in Asia in 2007 * eVAT Law was implemented under her term * she is currently in the 200 peso bill 15 Benigno Aquino III (June 30, 2010 – present) Son of the first female president of the Philippines and Asia – Corazon Aquino, Benigno Aquino III Aquino a. k. a. NoyNoy joined the House of Representatives and the Senate before his presidency. He is the first president who is a bachelor, unmarried and has no children.
Contributions and Achievements of Benigno Aquino III: * he created the no wang-wang policy and this was practiced on his inaugural address * he assigned the notable Jesse Robredo as the secretary of DILG in 2010. * he initiated the K-12 education in the Philippines * he renamed the Office of the Press Secretary into Presidential Communications Operations Office and appointed new officers * he signed an EO about suspension of allowances and bonuses of GOCCs and GFIs board members * has paved peace in Mindanao thru the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Movement * in 2012, the Philippine economy grew 7. 1% besting other South East Asian countries

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