Curriculum Steiner Montessori
As with most things in instruction, there is no in agreement definition of ‘curriculum’ . The manner we understand and theorise it has altered over the old ages. A utile starting point for us here might be the definition offered by John Kerr and taken up by Vic Kelly in his standard work on the topic. Kerr ( Kelly 1999, p.10 ) defines course of study as ‘All the acquisition which is planned and guided by school, whether it is carried on in groups or separately, inside or outside school.’
There are many theoreticians who have studied kid development and have designed curriculum’s from their ain theories which they think will offer the best acquisition environment. This study will merely analyze three of assorted current course of study but offers an penetration of how there is no existent right or incorrect manner of how a kid learns.
The study will take a expression at the ‘Steiner Method’ , the ‘Montessori Method’ , and eventually it will discourse the ‘High Scope Method’ , a more late developed method. It will besides supply illustrations on how some of the thoughts of these methods are being incorporated into other childcare scenes and course of studies.
The Steiner Method
There is over eight hundred Steiner schools universe broad. The Steiner method is based on the doctrines of Rudolf Steiner and the instruction emphasises personal duty and societal consciousness. The cardinal purpose of the instruction is to fit immature people emotionally, spiritually and intellectually, non merely to run into the hereafter but to play an of import portion in determining it.
Harmonizing to Steiner’s doctrine, adult male is a treble being of spirit, psyche, and organic structure whose capacities unfold in three developmental phases on the way to maturity: early childhood, in-between childhood, and adolescence. Steiner instruction differs from the mainstream in a figure of ways.
In a Steiner school there is no Hierarchy, instructors and parents work along together. Children do non get down formal instruction until they are six or seven old ages old and they so stay with the same instructor for seven old ages. The instructor works with the student’s parents, frequently sing the household place to let parental engagement. Classrooms are filled with natural and organic stuffs.
In a Steiner baby’s room, kids typically play with simple unfinished, wooden toys instead than bright plastic 1s, to let their imaginativenesss to develop. A Steiner schoolroom would hold few books and few computing machines. The Steiner doctrine dictates that screen images hinder the development of idea and imaginativeness. Colour is of import to Steiner ‘s educational doctrine for assisting kids ‘s imaginativeness to boom so students are instructed carefully as to how to continue through the coloring material spectrum ( Lewis 2001 ) .
The immense difference between the Steiner method and other methods is that larning is directed by the instructor instead than the kid. There is a immense accent on creativeness and instructors will demo kids how and what stuffs they use. Teachers stress physical development through a ritualised dance signifier called eurythmy.
Another primary rule of the Steiner method is kids do non get down reading until their grownup dentitions have erupted, normally around age seven, which, harmonizing to Steiner, shows the child’s preparedness to get down formal instruction. Delayed reading is one of the most controversial issues environing Steiner instruction, and there is concern from some pedagogues that kids may lose out on their literacy and reading “windows” ( Mogensen 2004 ) .
The Steiner method is one that is enormously different to other methods used in Nurseries and schools ; therefore it is sometimes hard to see similarities in other educational establishments. However you can see similar theories in the Montessori Method. The usage of natural stuffs and the composure scene is one of the chief rules that link the two methods. I have seen this in topographic point at a Montessori primary school. The school was really quiet, and tonss of playthings and larning stuffs were made of wood and other natural stuffs.
The school besides adopted some of the originative thoughts that Steiner follow. They let the kids make their ain narrative books alternatively of reading published books with ‘ready-made’ images, which encourages the kid to utilize their imaginativeness more widely. I think this is a great thought, as kids are non tainted by a peculiar image of a individual, animate being, object or environment. Kettle Nursery, who follow a 3-5 course of study, hold regular meetings with parents to inform them of their child’s development, and they besides give parents chances to detect their kid in the baby’s room. This promotes parental engagement, which is another of Steiner’s chief rules.
The Montessori Method
The Montessori Method is an educational method for kids, based on theories of kid development originated by an Italian pedagogue, Maria Montessori. The method accommodates all ages of kids but it is applied chiefly in preschool and simple schools. It is an alternate type of method that harnesses the child’s natural ability to larn and is built upon the thought that kids develop and believe otherwise than grownups.
The Montessori Method supports all facets of the Childs personal and societal development. “From the minute the kid enters the schoolroom, each measure in his instruction is seen as a progressive edifice block, finally organizing the whole individual, in the outgrowth from childhood to adulthood. All focal point is on the demands of the child” ( Hainstock 1997, p.xiii ) .
One separating characteristic of the Montessori at the preschool age is that kids direct their ain acquisition, taking among the subdivisions of a well structured and stocked schoolroom including practical life, sensory, Language, Math, Geography, Science and Art. The “Practical Life” country is particularly for the really immature kid and teaches them how to care for themselves and their environment.
Here, a kid will larn to dress themselves, to pour, to rinse a tabular array, and to properly rinse their custodies, among other things. The “Sensorial” country allows them to utilize their senses to larn about the universe. Here, a kid will larn to judge different highs, lengths, weights, colourss, sounds, odors, forms, and textures. The linguistic communication, math, geographics and scientific discipline countries provide a kid with AIDSs for their rational development. Exercises in organic structure motion assist their physical development and their consciousness of their organic structure and what it can make. Many Montessori schools add such countries as music, art, dance, run uping, wood-working and foreign linguistic communications to foster enrich a child’s sum development ( Montessori 1912 ) .
In a Montessori school, a kid teaches himself through their usage of the specially designed Montessori stuffs. These are attractive, by and large simple, child-sized stuffs that are self-correcting, that is, if a kid makes an mistake, they can see it by looking at the stuff itself in this manner ; no grownup is needed to indicate out their error and possibly wound their self-pride. The kid learns to work entirely and with others in a Montessori school.
A kid learns to follow the category “ground rules” and may frequently remind other kids to follow them every bit good. Because they can take their ain work and make it at their ain gait, a kid has many chances for success ; the Montessori schoolroom is non-competitive. They will besides hold entree to workss and animate beings and will assist care for them. The Montessori schoolroom is an attractive topographic point in which a kid can be free from big domination and can detect their universe and construct their head and organic structure.
The Montessori Method is alone. It is based on a reasonable balance between freedom and construction specifically designed for the immature kid. It provides a pleasant environment with carefully devised stuffs that meet the child’s natural demands. It provides the overall counsel of a thoroughly trained teacher. The function of the instructor is to present kids to stuffs and remain a “silent presence” ( Montessori 1912, p.371 ) in the schoolroom. Montessori gives a kid a strong footing, in their most formative old ages, for developing into a all-around, responsible, happy and fulfilled grownup.
From my experience in Kettle baby’s room, I can see how the course of study incorporates some of the thoughts that the Montessori Method follows. For case, the kids are to the full encouraged to make things for themselves, and take their ain drama and acquisition. The grownup is to merely function as an helper by back uping and widening their acquisition through drama.
They are besides encouraged to clean up after themselves ; rinsing up their bite dishes, cleaning the tabular arraies and clean uping off stuffs one time they have finished utilizing them this is a really similar thought to the Montessori’s practical life thought. Another activity that allows kids to see practical life is when every bit shortly as they enter the baby’s room they are expected to take their outside vesture and places themselves, and at the terminal of the twenty-four hours they are expected to set it back on themselves.
The High Scope Method
The High Scope course of study was developed in the United States of America in the 1960’s. It is one of the most common methods used at that place and in some other states. The thought behind High Scope is that kids should be involved actively in their ain acquisition. The grownups working with the kids should see themselves more as facilitators than supervisors.
The High Scope method is an “active learning” attack. This means pupils have direct custodies on experience with people, objects, events and thoughts. Children’s involvements and picks are at the bosom of High Scope based plans. They construct their ain cognition through interactions with the universe and the people around them.
Children take the first measure in the acquisition procedure by doing picks and following through on their programs and determinations. Teachers and parents offer physical, emotional and rational support. In active learning scenes grownups expand children’s believing with diverse stuffs and nurturing interactions.
High Scope has alone characteristics that differentiate it from other early childhood plans. One is the day-to-day plan-do-review sequence. Research shows that be aftering and reexamining are the two constituents of the plan twenty-four hours most positively and significantly associated with children’s tonss on measurings of developmental advancement.
This three-part sequence is alone to the High/Scope attack. It includes a short little group treatment during which kids plan what they want to make during work clip ( the country to see, stuffs to utilize and friends to play with ) . They are so given to clip to transport out their programs and so they meet up once more for another group treatment for reexamining what they have done and what they have learned. In between “do” and “review” kids clean up by seting off their stuffs or hive awaying unfinished undertakings. Childs are really active and purposeful during “do” clip because they are prosecuting activities that involvement them. They may follow their initial programs but frequently as they become engaged their programs shift or may even alter wholly ( High Scope Educational Research Foundation 2007 ) .
The High Scope method besides operates group clip. ‘Small’ group clip is a opportunity for the kids to run into with an grownup to experiment with stuffs and work out jobs. Although grownups choose the activity to underscore a cardinal experience, kids are free to utilize the stuff in any manner they want during this clip. ‘Large’ group clip is the clip where kids and grownups come together for motion and music activities storytelling and other activities. Children have many picks and play the function of leader.
In High Scope plans grownups are as active in the acquisition procedure as kids. A common spring and take relationship exists in which both groups participate as leaders and followings, talkers and hearers. Adults interact with kids by sharing control with them ; concentrating on their strengths, organizing echt relationships with them, back uping their drama thoughts, and assisting them decide struggles. Adults participate as spouses in children’s activities instead than supervisors. They respect kids and their picks and promote enterprise, independency, and creativeness. Because grownups are good trained in kid development, they provide stuffs and program experiences that kids need to turn and larn.
Children and grownups spend at least half an hr outside every twenty-four hours basking vigorous and frequently noisy drama. They are free to do big motions running, jumping, mounting singing turn overing leaping yelling-all with energy. They collect and they garden. In utmost conditions they do big motor activity indoors. Transition times are the proceedingss between other blocks of the twenty-four hours including reaching and going times.
The end is to do passages go through swimmingly since they set the phase for the following section in the days’ agenda. They besides provide meaningful chances themselves. Children may make up one’s mind how to travel across the floor on the manner to little group clip. With a consistent day-to-day modus operandi, kids know what is traveling to take topographic point next. It is non unusual for them to denote the following activity and originate the passage. Snack clip allows kids to bask eating healthy nutrient in a supportive societal scene ( High Scope Educational Research Foundation 2007 ) .
Some of these day-to-day modus operandis that happen in a high range baby’s room are rather similar to other course of studies. The thought of the kid taking their ain acquisition is incorporated into the Montessori Method and the 3-5 twelvemonth Curriculum. I have seen this work good at Kettle Nursery. Another of import component that I have seen in working action was the importance of wellness. Snack clip at Kettle allows kids to see a healthy eating experience ; including sugar free bites, fruits and veggies.
It seems to be that in the High Scope Method, the child’s wellness is a really of import facet of the course of study, which is really similar to the 3-5 old ages course of study. Kettle Nursery provides the chance for the kids to see play outside each twenty-four hours. They encourage an active life style which once more is really similar to High Scope. At the terminal of they twenty-four hours at Kettle Nursery, the Nursery Nurse besides spends a few proceedingss to discourse with the kids what they did that twenty-four hours, this is a small similar to the High Scopes thought of ‘reviewing’ .
Hainstock, E. 1997.The Essential Montessori: An debut to the adult female, the Hagiographas, the method, and the motion. New York: Plume Books.
High Scope Educational Research Foundation. 2007.Curriculum.[ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.highscope.org/Content.asp? ContentId=1 [ accessed 24 September 2007 ]
Kelly, A. V. 1999.The Curriculum: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Lewis, G. 2001.Rudolf Steiner. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.freedom-in-education.co.uk/Steiner.htm [ accessed 24 September 2007 ]
Mogensen, K. 2004.Eyess Wide Open. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aeufederal.org.au/Publications/AE/Atmn04pp26-30.pdf [ accessed 24 September 2007 ]
Montessori, M. 1912.The Montessori Method.[ e-book ] New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //digital.library.upenn.edu/women/montessori/method/method.html [ accessed 14 October 2007 ]
Scots Executive. 2001.Curriculum Framework for kids 3 to 5.Dundee: Learning and Teaching Scotland.
Tanner, D. 2006.Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Maria Montessori. n.d.Maria Montessori, MD.[ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.montessori.edu/maria.html [ accessed 24 September 2007 ]
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