Determination of Requirements

A requirement outlines the features which a system possesses. Determining of requirements helps to identify the functions of the system in providing value to a business and in this scenario, to provide a smartphone that is user-friendly to the older generation of over 70years. The smartphone design project takes into consideration the user, functional, nonfunctional, and system requirements. The user requirements entail what the elderly people should do to be able to have a user-friendly interface with the smartphone. The role of the software is outlined by the functional requirements while the non-functional requirements encompass the attributes of the system (Dennis et al, 2015). Additionally, the system requirements outline the manner in which the smartphone system shall be assembled. A clear understanding of the four major types of requirements helps to outline their importance in capturing requirements for the smartphone design.

There are various techniques that are used to elicit requirements depending on the nature of the project. They include Joint Application Development (JAD) sessions, document analysis, interviews, observation, and questionnaires (Dennis et al, 2015). Project teams choose the technique that best suits their task depending on the complexity, cost, and benefit associated with the development of the project. In the scenario of designing a smartphone for the elderly, it is imperative to understand and satisfy the needs of the end user. This information would be best gathered through the use of Joint Application Development sessions since the technique provides a more interactive interface and a chance to identify modifications or enhancements.

The JAD technique provides a platform where the project team members, end user and administration work jointly to establish the system requirements. This approach reduces the uncontrolled changes in the scope of the project thus, providing a balance between the specificity and vagueness of the requirements (Kendall et al, 1992). The Joint Application Development sessions comprise of 10 to 20 users and a neutral JAD skilled facilitator who provides guidelines to the discussions but in no way should he /she offer ideas to the subject matter of discussion. It is important for the facilitator to be well versed in group process and system analysis and design techniques. One or two people help with taking notes and the sessions go on for as long as required to gather the necessary information.

The use of electronic JAD sessions helps to minimize the time taken to gather the information while ensuring that all possible ideas are identified and ranked by merit (Kendall et al, 1992). The electronic version would be best suited to capture requirements for the design of a smartphone for the elderly since it provides a platform where all members are able to participate and offer their ideas and opinions.

Selection of the Joint Application Development participants is based on the amount and level of information they can provide regarding the establishment of smartphones for the elderly. Any information within the scope of the various categories of requirements would be very relevant. The sessions are best held away from the organization so as to minimize interruptions from regular work and can only be held when all invitees are present at the sessions (Dennis et al, 2015). It is, therefore, important to schedule the sessions with the certainty of every participant’s attendance.  The invitees to the sessions are to be provided with an agenda before commencing the meeting and an orientation setting prior to the initial JAD session. Orientation provides participants with an idea of what is expected of them thus allowing them time to think of possible ideas.

The interactive and open nature of Joint Application Development sessions would without a doubt provides reliable insights that help elicit the requirements of focus in the design of smartphones for the elderly. An analysis of the JAD post-session report would offer a platform for proposing improvements or adjustments to the requirements arrived at by the session participants. This, therefore, ensures that all relevant information is taken into consideration while determining the requirements that ultimately influence the design of the smartphone for the elderly.


Dennis, A., Wixom, B. H., & Tegarden, D. (2015). Systems analysis and design: An object-oriented approach with UML. John Wiley & Sons.

Kendall, K. E., Kendall, J. E., Kendall, E. J., & Kendall, J. A. (1992). Systems analysis and design (Vol. 2). Prentice-Hall.

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