Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cold War was a clash between the U.S.A and its confederates along with the Soviet Union. Even though the military war did not occur, economic and diplomatic conflicts took place. The Cold War started when the head of the Communist party Joseph Stalin, sourced out the Red Army to dominate a majority of the nations in the Eastern of Europe, due to this reason, the Western European nations and the United States were worried. In retort to Stalin’s military operations, President Harry Truman allotted the Truman Doctrine in the year 1947. Furthermore, he requested the United States to help any country, which would ask for support in battling socialism. The Truman Doctrine later on was recognized as the core for restraint, the strategy to retain socialism from diffusing to other states. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) got established in the year 1949 (Brands, Hal).

The nations that were contained in the treaty included the United States, France, Britain, Denmark, Canada, Iceland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Norway, and the Netherlands. The NATO treaty stated, “A war against any of its associates in America and Europe will be deemed as a war against all of them.” To defend against attackers, the nuclear weapons and American forces were supposed to be retained in the Western of Europe. In retort to NATO, the Soviet Union created a related treaty among seven East of European countries referred to as the Warsaw Pact or the Warsaw Treaty Organization. The states included were Romania, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania. While these agreements were being created, the Soviet Union and the United States were competing. Both parties were developing many nuclear weapons, attempting to produce more than one another do. By the year 1952, the U.S examined a hydrogen bomb, the bomb that is exceptionally robust in comparison to an atomic bomb. 

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While armaments were reinforcing, the Soviet Union underwent a significant transformation in power. The leader of the Communist Party, Joseph Stalin died, and Nikita Khrushchev took over as the leader of the Communist Party. Khrushchev changed everything and declared that the Soviet Union would be peaceful coexistence with the West.  

In the early 1960s, fresh pressures ascended between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the U.S, when Fidel Castro supported socialism and united with the Soviet Union, the soviet First Deputy Prime Minister Anastas Mikoyan, conveyed this union, cumulating the conflict between the USSR and United States, making this the starting of Cuban Missile catastrophe. Prior to the severed links, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was teaching the Cuban exiles to prepare for a potential attack of Cuba. The new initiated President John F. Kennedy acknowledged the attack on April 12, the year 1961. Moreover, in the same year, a team of B-26 bombers who were directed by the Cuban exiles raided the air bases in located in Cuba. The attack was created to damage Castro’s air power prior to commence of the land invasion. In the year 1961, the land attack on Cuba occurred at the Bay of Pigs, of the 1500 Cuban exiles, 1189 got caught, and 114 were murdered.

After the attack, a lot of tensions between the USSR and United States showcased. In 1961, the government of East German that was dominated by Soviet Union created the Berlin Wall for separating the East Berlin and West Berlin. After the wall of Berlin, the United States’ faced a dreadful time as the United States spy planes saw the first air-to-air missile on Cuba. President Kennedy concluded to revenge; he had various types of choices, air strikes, invasion, diplomacy, or a blockade. President Kennedy commanded a maritime blockade in Cuba areas to avoid dangerous weapons being brought, in the year 1962. President Kennedy stated that he would make a point of turning back the ships with the intention of distributing weapons to Cuba. President Kennedy ordered Khrushchev removes and dismantles missiles, which were positioned in Cuba. Khrushchev approved to eradicate the weapons and provided an on-site assessment. In addition, President Kennedy too endorsed and confiscated the nautical blockade from Cuba. 

On October 22, the year 1962 President Kennedy professed that Cuba Island was under isolation. It was not easy for him to come up with that choice. However, the ExCom that it was the only solution since the others included doing nothing and a surgical air strike (Colman, et al.,) The Surgical air strike was declined since the US Air Force was not confident they could warrant success. Moreover, doing nothing was declined since it would demean the credibility of the U.S.

Furthermore, Kennedy pronounced that the U.S army would remove dangerous weapons coming in the marine zone. The Soviet ships that went into the marine area were inspected, and not any was found carrying such luggage; the majority of the Soviet ships heading to Cuba remained clear of the zone. After an anxious week (all through a lot of information was exchanged between the parties as they started preparing for war), Khrushchev declared that the formation of the site had been put on hold, on October 28. Besides, he additionally identified that the missile located on the island were of provoking state.

Even if the Soviet premier announced that the UN agency could authenticate his promise, the UN review never occurred. Following the U.S U-2 flight inspections, the government of U.S revoked the marine on November 20.

Consequently, President John F. Kennedy had no concept of what type of act to follow. He discerned that if he tried to damage the missiles in Cuba, there might be a potential risk of a global nuclear attack, which would result in mass destruction. Also, he knew without taking any action the outcome may be war. The USSR had dominated East of Berlin and was looming to govern West of Berlin too even if there will be a fight. Without doing anything in the issue about weapons in Cuba, the warnings of an attack on Berlin would significantly arise. For president Kennedy, without taking any actions about the missiles matter would foster menace in another crisis-threatening disaster in the course of the year, but this period, it will be because of Berlin. 

President Kennedy’s line up of advisors believed it would be sensible to execute a barrier in Cuba. In the same duration of time, the U.S Army started shifting pieces of equipment and soldiers in a suitable station for a potential attack on Cuba. President Kennedy did not acknowledge the invasion since it would be the onset of war. In reply, the Soviet Union announced that it would eliminate their missiles if the U.s confiscated their weapons too from Turkey. However, the U.S did not approve this. Irrevocably, Kennedy decreed to retort to Khrushchev’s initial letter, to eliminate weapons from Cuba only if the US promise was created to not attack Cuba. Simultaneously, Kennedy organized a meeting with Khrushchev and gave him his word that he would confiscate all the weapons from Turkey. Nonetheless, Robert Kennedy journeyed to the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D.C. to convey the President Kennedy’s promise and to caution that the president became impetuous and that the U.S would be forced to invasion. Also, Robert announced that they were carefully viewing all military operations in Cuba. 

Conclusively, The Cuban Missile catastrophe was put to a stop. The nuclear attack was prevented; however, the Cuban Missile Crisis did not finish the Cold War (Stern, Sheldon). As a matter of fact, the Cold War ended in the early nineties, at the time when George Bush along with Mikhail Gorbachev completed the superpower conflict.

References

Colman, Jonathan. Cuban Missile Crisis: Origins, Course and Aftermath. Edinburgh University Press, 2016.

Brands, Hal. What good is grand strategy?: Power and purpose in American statecraft from Harry S. Truman to George W. Bush. Cornell University Press, 2014.Stern, Sheldon M. The Cuban missile crisis in American memory: Myths versus reality. Stanford University Press, 2012.

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