Counseling is a method used to help others emotionally and psychologically by use of relationship, verbal and non-verbal.

Counseling is a method used to help others emotionally and psychologically by use of relationship, verbal and non-verbal. These skills are used to help reach out to people and make them feel better and better their behaviour, moods, thinking and their overall health (Geldard & Geldard, 2003). People; now and then find the need to talk to somebody about issues they may be going through. Some, including those with fulfilled lives, may seek help over an emotional or psychological problem. Some may talk to their peers, parents, friends, partners and be able to resolve while others prefer to deal with these issues in their unique way. However, a few people prefer to talk to counsellors over individuals who are familiar with them Geldard et al. 2016. The goal is to both punish and rehabilitate the criminal offenders Muraskin, 2005. Rehabilitation by imprisonment is done with the hope that the prisoner, after serving time will not want to go back again given their experiences while in lock up. Research, unfortunately, has shown that the opposite happens. Majority of these inmates get deeper and more involved in criminal activities by learning better and more ways to commit a crime. To counter this result, tactic approached will have to change. Prison facilities have to mentor and counsel inmates to overcome this vice thus the need to have counsellors to help rehabilitate convicts Carolyn, 2014. Hesselink et al. 2009 say that prisons have to provide better counselling to improve rehabilitation. This will assist them in dealing with their psychological issues and make them better ex-convicts who do not wish to go back to prison. Counselors must understand the goals and purposes of counselling to be effective in a long time instead of providing a short-term solution only for one to go back to their previous state later; therefore counselling process needs to have a more lasting impact David et al. 2016. Inmates will be taught some of the critical interpersonal skills that will go to helping them in the long term.

Positive outcome of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)

It is a treatment that teaches one to cope with their thoughts, attitudes and behaviour. It combines behaviour and cognitive therapy treatment, Chambless, Ollendick, 2001. Crits-Christoph, 1998 says that emotions, being hard to change there should be more on changing the behaviour and the thinking that leads to these feelings. CBT, therefore, seeks to change a person’s emotion by changing their way of thinking and behaving. This is a useful skill that has been a success and would be among inmates. Criminals are mentally trapped in their thinking, and with hard work and effort, they can learn to change and be better people with cognitive treatment. CBT build skills to enable an individual to be aware of their thoughts and identify behaviour that influences their emotions and improve on that. This is an opportunity currently not in prisons but if introduced would go on to help rehabilitate prisoners. Inmates can learn to be better citizens by changing their thinking Jack and Blackwell, 2016. According to Rachman & Wilson, 2008, CBT is very effective among inmates and believes that it is about time everyone followed suit. The whole idea is to change inmates thinking that gets them in trouble like, I am weak if I give up other offenders, revenge in every instance they feel they have been offended. Criminal behaviour is a result of a criminal way of thinking and to change their behaviour; their thinking must change Jack and Blackwell, 2016.

Empathy

Empathy: This is the ability to be sensitive and understanding to others feelings Hoffman 1982. It is a response that stems from another’s emotional state Flashback 1978. Bates (2003) found that empathy is an important skill that is taught to prisoners would be of great help. It helps create a sense of trust and belonging in ones surrounding. Empathy, if shown among inmates will lead to a feeling of unity, togetherness and respect for one another. It will result in patients being conscious to other people hence putting others needs ahead of them which will lead to them not hurting other people or committing a crime. Empathy plays a major role in a victimisation context Mulloy et al. (1999). According to Jolliffe and Farrington, 2004), many offenders can anticipate the suffering and their victims’ pain.

Nonpossessive warmth

Research shows that therapy offered of non-possessive warmth constructs positive personality change within an enclosed environment like a prison or hospital Truax & Carkhuff, 1967. This study further finds non-possessive warmth is a crucial source of a client’s progress in rehabilitation, Rioch, et al., 1963. This is encouraging since the empathy and kindness are extended socially in a vocation. Mitchell et al.’s (1977) concluded that counsellors who are non-possessive and empathic in their attitude are the most effective regardless of their theoretical orientation or level of training.

Positive regards

It is a term used in person-centred counselling referring to accepting another person as they without any judgment or discrimination. (Mearns & Thorne, 1988) In this concept, a person is not judged on their behaviour, action or words but rather no- the judgmental environment is created for them. A client is accepted as they are regardless of their disclosures. In this person-centred counselling, inmates will freely express themselves in a confidential environment without fear of condemnation. The counsellor accepts thoughts and feelings expressed to understand the convicts more and build a trusting relationship moreover; the criminals will start to develop respect for others, be impartial, compassionate, accept others differences and be compassionate. A counsellor must show unconditional regard towards the inmates without personal expressions for this may hinder progress among patients, Anna 2016.

Genuineness

Horvath and Luborsky (1993), suggest that there are reasonably well-documented therapies that prove positive correlation exists between the respectable alliance and successful outcome of the treatment. (Rogers, 1956, states six conditions including for the therapist to fitting or genuine. Moreover, no condition outside is necessary for change. Identification of a therapist’s empathy, since Rogers, 1957, is that they must be non-judgmental, of congruence warm and acceptance. This will, in turn, help inmates try and emulate and be comfortable with their true self. Genuine forms a foundation of relationships demonstrated by prisoners who feel is not hiding from themselves or others. Moreover, they will be comfortable with each other thus making them more honest and open to one another. 

Therapeutic alliances

These are the relationships that form between a therapist and a client during therapy sessions. It focuses on how they engage, connect and behave with each other. It is a bond that is as a result of treatment engagement. Rogers 1951. He further states that these alliances go along way to bring positive changes.

Previously incarcerated criminals residing back in the community on parole would quickly resent and distrust authority figures. Dearing et al., 2005 states that it is a fact that offenders who are required by law to undergo counselling after leaving prison view counsellors with distrust including other authority figures. Creating and maintaining a bond with convicts is critical in their rehabilitation. Engaging the clients is known to be productive through a few would be hesitant in divulging information or opening up due to trust issues. Therefore, it is important to create this bond between inmates and counsellors to overcome this deficit, Farbring & Johnson, 2008.

Counselling of detainees helps them discover themselves, their potential, developmentally and emotionally, moreover patients can correct their behaviour and make amends of their wrongdoings thus becoming a better member of the society, Todd & Bohart, 2003.

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Dearing, R., Barrick, C., Dermen, K., & Walitzer, K. (2005). Indicators of client engagement: Influences on alcohol treatment satisfaction and outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19(1), 71-78.

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