In my opinion to understand the way things are today you must first understand the history and background. So with that being said I would start off the class with the history and background of policing. The modern concept of police was started in London in 1829 by Robert Peel. Robert Peel felt that the law should be responsible up to the prosecution phase but the trial, conviction and punishment phase should be the responsibility of another party. However, Robert Peel’s approach and community policing one thing is the main goal and that’s prevention of crimes. http://voices. yahoo. com/law-enforcement-sir-robert-peels-concept-community-638595. html) I would then go into the times for reform which occurred in the late 1800’s. I would discuss American history which was divided into three eras. These three eras were the political era, the reform era and the community policing era. The political era this occurred from 1840 to 1930. This focused on close ties between police and politicians as well as first emphasis on making politicians happy. Next was the reform era that occurred from 1930 to 1970.
This focused on professional crime fighting and arrest were the main focus of police. Then last was community policing from 1970 and is still used today. The focus of this era was partnership between police and the community. (http://www. grossmont. edu/lance. parr/intro4. htm) Community policing and problem solving gives the public an opportunity to work with police in order to prevent crimes. In conclusion our country has continued to follow Robert Peel’s ideas of effective policing. Before policing can be effective the community and the police must work together to make this happen.
Peel believed that the police are the people and the people are the police. (http://voices. yahoo. com/law-enforcement-sir-robert-peels-concept-community-638595. html) References: http://voices. yahoo. com/law-enforcement-sir-robert-peels-concept-community-638595. html http://www. grossmont. edu/lance. parr/intro4. htm Community Policing and Problem Solving by J. Peak 2012 Summarize the three eras of policing (political, reform, and community). Identify and briefly discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each era.
Respond in no less than 300 words. The three eras of policing are political, reform and community. Each new era brought forth something different to the police force. In 1844 New York establishes a police force for New York City. Unlike others this police force was different. The city government and politicians had control of the police force even as far as selecting officers. This era was known as the political era. This meant there were close ties between the police force and politicians. The main goal was to make the politicians happy.
In 1930 the political era became the reform era. This era focused mainly on the arrest of individuals which meant professional crime fighting. Officers were to enforce the laws and make arrest whenever possible. When bigger problems arose a special type of unit was assigned instead of assigning an officer to a case. During the professional or reform era crime began to rise, fear in people arose, minorities did not receive their treatment by police adequate or equitable, and police began to be in competition with one another.
This era was about to end and a new one began. In 1970 a new era began which was known as community policing. This focused on a partnership between police and the community. At this time it was suggested that patrol officers performance would improve by reorganizing the jobs based on the officers. This later became known as team policing. The idea of team policing was to restructure the departments, improve police-community relations, enhance police officer morale, and facilitate change in the police organization.
Now with the new era in place a system was developed called COPPS which means Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving. The community and police officers working together to prevent crime is now the culture to many police organizations. I believe that the era that works best for police organizations is the community era this gives police and the community the opportunity to work together to prevent crimes which should be the main focus. (Ken Peak 2003 professor of criminal justice) References: http://www. policechiefmagazine. org/magazine/index. cfm? useaction=display_arch&article_id=1968&issue_id=122009 1. What were the primary findings and recommendations of the Wickersham Commission? What changes resulted from these recommendations? How did the work of O. W. Wilson, August Vollmer, and J. Edgar Hoover further reform policing in this era? Respond in no less than 250 words. President Hoover created the Wickersham Commission because of arguments over prohibition and the citizens’ concerns on crime increased. The Chicago gang wars and the Valentine’s Day Massacre brought on most of the concerns from citizens.
Hoover’s idea of the Wickersham Commission was to improve the notably ineffective enforcement of prohibition. A list of Wickersham’s conclusions and recommendations was provided to try and ease the concerns of citizens. The commission is opposed to repeal of the eighteenth amendment, to the restoration in any manner of the legalized saloon, to the federal or state governments such as going into the liquor business, to the proposal to modify the National Prohibition Act so as to permit manufacture and sale of light wines and beer.
The commission is of opinion that the cooperation of the states is an essential element in the enforcement of the eighteenth amendment and the National Prohibition Act throughout the territory of the United States; that the support of public opinion in the several states is necessary in order to insure such cooperation. The commission is of opinion that prior to the enactment of the Bureau of Prohibition Act, 1927; the agencies for enforcement were badly organized and inadequate; that subsequent to the enactment there has been continued improvement in organization and effort for enforcement.
The commission is of opinion that the present organization for enforcement is still inadequate. The commission is of opinion that the federal appropriations for enforcement of the eighteenth amendment should be substantially increased and that the vigorous and better organized efforts which have gone on since the Bureau of Prohibition Act, 1927, should be furthered by certain improvements in the statutes and in the organization, personnel and equipment of enforcement, so as to give enforcement the greatest practicable efficiency.
Some of the commissions were not convinced that prohibition under the eighteenth is unenforceable and believe that a further trial should be made with the help of the recommended improvements, and that if after such trial effective enforcement is not secured there should be a revision of the amendment. Others of the commission were convinced of the opposite they believed that it has been demonstrated that prohibition under the 18th amendment is unenforceable and that the amendment should be immediately revised.
The commissions did agree that if the amendment were to be revised it would read: Removal of the causes of irritation and resentment on the part of the medical profession by: The commission concluded by doing away with the statutory fixing of the amount which may be prescribed and the number of prescriptions, abolition of the requirement of specifying the ailment for which liquor is prescribed upon a blank to go into the public flies; leaving as much as possible to regulation rather than fixing details by statue.
The commission also concluded that the removal of the anomalous provisions in section 29, National Prohibition Act, as to cider and fruit juices by making some uniform regulation for a fixed alcoholic content. Increase of the number of agents, storekeepers-gaugers, prohibition investigators, and special agents; increase in the personnel of the Customs Bureau and in the equipment of all enforcement organizations. The commission concluded that the enactment of legislation to prohibit independent denaturing plants.
The commission is opposed to legislation allowing more latitude for federal searches and seizures. The commission renews its recommendation of legislation for making procedure in the so-called padlock injunction cases more effective. The commission recommends legislation providing a mode of prosecuting petty offenses in the federal courts and modifying the Increased Penalties Act of 1929, as set forth in the chairman’s letter to the attorney general dated May 23, 1930. The commission met from 1929 to 1930 to work out the kinks in the recommendations and conclusions the final report was issued in 1931.
The commission focused a lot on manufacturing and sales of liquor. The commission stated in the report that the eighteenth amendment should not be repealed but the government should spend more money and effort enforcing prohibition laws. (http://ehistory. osu. edu/osu/mmh/clash/prohibition/Documents/wickershamreport. htm) References: http://ehistory. osu. edu/osu/mmh/clash/prohibition/Documents/wickershamreport. htm http://legal-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/Wickersham+Commission According to
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