in 100 words or more each with references and in text citations answer the 6 questions.
1. What is the relationship between wavelength, frequency, and the velocity of a wave? What are some examples of media that exhibit wave-like properties.
2. An atom’s electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the distance at which its valence electron reside from the charged nucleus. Electronegativity is can be described like he game of tug-of-war for further understanding. Imagine a game of tug-of-war. If the two teams are of the same strength, the rope tends to stay centered. If one team is stronger, the rope is pulled in that team’s direction. If one team is overwhelmingly stronger, the weaker team is no longer able to hold onto the rope and the entire rope ends up on the side of the stronger team.
3. Wave motion arises when a periodic disturbance of some kind is propagated through a medium. Pressure variations through air, transverse motions along a guitar string, or variations in the intensities of the local electric and magnetic fields in space, which constitute electromagnetic radiation, are all typical examples of wave motion. For each medium, there is a characteristic velocity at which the disturbance travels.
4. The states of electrons are represented by wavefunctions. Each wavefunction has a set of numbers, called quantum numbers. We often use quantum numbers to describe properties of electrons. Electronic states, represented by wavefunctions, in an atom are called atomic orbitals. Since we use quantum numbers to describe them, atomic orbitals are labeled by quantum numbers, such as 2sorbital, s represent quantum number l = 0, that implies m = 0. Each atomic orbital accommodates two electrons due to electron spin.
5. There are several ways that one can write out the Lewis structure to indicate certain aspects of the bond. For instance, we write dots around the element’s symbol for each valence electron. Each of the four sides of the symbol can hold up to 2 dots, creating a full outer shell. A full outer valence shell can either be an octet or a duet. The octet indicates that there are 8 valence electrons, and a duet has 2 valence electrons, such as a hydrogen atom. Also, some atoms are seen in pairs, such as oxygen and hydrogen. This is because two of the same element creates a more stable element. In the oxygen’s case, there are 6 valence electrons, so when you pair two oxygen atoms together, you can form an octet by a double bond. A double bond is stronger that a lone bond.
6. Diagrams showing the distribution of intensity versus wavelengths are called spectra. Their study reveals the fundamentals of electromagnetic radiation as well as leading to useful applications. For example, the Hydrogen spectra study led Bohr and others to develop the quantum theory to describe the atomic structures. I am thinking why is spectra an important topic to consider.
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