Bone cancer

Introduction

Bone cancer is termed a malignant tumor which forms within the cells and tissues that make up the bones in our bodies. Some of the tumors that emerge in the bone tissues can be benign or rather malignant. It may originate from the bone or spread into the bone from other organs and tissues. Fallon et al (2016) state that bone cancer has become prevalent among the younger individuals, therefore,  without early diagnosis and treatment of the disease, more cases will be reported. The paper will thus, highlight the Treatment strategies for bone cancer.

Treatment

The treatment and control options for bone cancer varies depending on the size, location, form and the stage of the infection. Treatment approach also depends whether the infection was as a result of a primary or secondary course (Mantyh, 2014). Age and the overall health condition of the victim is also a crucial factor in treatment. However, the main strategies for treatment include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cryosurgery, and surgery.

Chemotherapy

The strategy involves the use of the anticancer medication to kill cells reported to cause cancer (Mantyh, 2014). Mifamurtide drugs are often incorporated into chemotherapy to eliminate traces of tumor cells that may emerge after chemotherapy. Fallon et al (2016) reported that when a standard therapy is performed, the individual is given a high dosage of ‘drug methotrexate and leucovorin’ which is very effective in treating osteosarcoma. Moreover, ‘Ifosfamide’ drugs are effective in cases where the rate of cell death is extremely low. Some of the drugs which have been approved for bone cancer treatment include Denosumab, Folex PFS Methotrexate, Abitrexate, Etoposide, Cyclophosphamide among others (Halliwell & Gutteridge, 2015). Chondrosarcoma type is often treated effectively through chemotherapy.

Surgery

This is the most commonly used strategy in the treatment of bone cancer.  The surgeon is bound to remove the infected organ or tissue to a negative margin in that no tumor cell should be left at the edges of the tissue being removed (Halliwell & Gutteridge, 2015). Modified surgical approaches are incorporated in the process to prevent healthy tissue elimination with the tumor. For patients having ‘Osteosarcoma’ bone cancer, the individual is often examined by the oncologists immediately after surgery, and ‘Neoadjuvant’ chemotherapy is incorporated before the surgical re-sectioning process. With great improvements made in the manipulation of surgical technique as well as the preoperative cancer treatment, treatment of individuals having the arm or leg bone cancer has become effective without necessarily removing the entire organ (Halliwell & Gutteridge, 2015). Moreover, reconstructive surgery can be conducted to guarantee maximum functioning of the portion excised.

Radiotherapy

The strategy entails the use of high-energy radiations to kill the tumor cells and often used together with the surgical technique. Fallon et al (2016) argues that radiotherapy is highly effective for treatment of chondrosarcoma which cannot be managed with chemotherapy. Patients who refuse the surgical technique can as well be treated with radiotherapy.

Cryosurgery

With cryosurgery, liquid nitrogen is used to freeze and kill the tumor cells (Fallon et al, 2016). A spraying machine or cotton swabs are used to directly deliver the liquid nitrogen to kill the cancer cells or tissues that make the bones.

Conclusion

Treatment of the disease is possible if detected early. However, prevention is the best strategy to avoid traces of tumor cells in the body (Halliwell & Gutteridge, 2015). Medical research denotes that individuals who consumed the genetically modified food substances are at a higher risk for the disease. Moreover, frequent intake of anticancer medication, as well as the subjection of an individual to high-dose external radiation therapy, prompts a person into a higher risk of developing bone cancer among other related cancer infections (Fallon et al, 2016). Reports also show that the disease can be genetically transferred especially among the children who have been previously diagnosed with hereditary retinoblastoma. 

Additionally, individuals detected with hereditary bone defects or have some metal implants are at a higher risk thus the health researchers advise us to avoid intake of substances claimed to be cancerous such as the genetically modified food which may cause mutation in our bodies and eventually cancer development. Mantyh (2014) states that healthy lifestyle is the best prevention method for cancer which has been reported to be one of the major killer diseases in the world. Thus, it is upon the individuals to adopt for a better living.

References

Fallon, M., Hoskin, P. J., Colvin, L. A., Fleetwood-Walker, S. M., Adamson, D., Byrne, A., … & Laird, B. J. (2016). Randomized double-blind trial of pregabalin versus placebo in conjunction with palliative radiotherapy for cancer-induced bone painJournal of Clinical Oncology34(6), 550.

Halliwell, B., & Gutteridge, J. M. (2015). Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford University Press, USA.

Mantyh, P. W. (2014). Bone cancer pain: from mechanism to therapy. Current opinion in supportive and palliative care8(2), 83.

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