bio 2.2 : Solution Essays

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We will continue to analyze our study conducted in the oceans of the Gulf of Mexico in the article by Urakawa et al (2012), A sensitive crude oil bioassay indicates that oil spills potentially induce a change of major nitrifying prokaryotes from the Archaea to the Bacteria.

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As you analyze the results in this study, think back to the evolution of life on our planet and the videos you watched in Module 1. One theory of the evolution of life suggests that life evolved in a chemical “soup” of ingredients that under the right conditions facilitated the collection of molecules into primitive cells. In order to maintain organization, these primitive cells needed to acquire resources from their oceanic environment, harvest the energy from these sources, and use it to maintain the structures that worked well and build new structures to accomplish future work and survival. This process is termed “metabolism,” and organisms have evolved many strategies in order to accomplish life-sustaining chemical transformations.

In order to continue your analyses, you must first be able to explain some of the important metabolic pathways described in the study. In this SLP assignment you will compare chemotrophic metabolic pathways to photosynthesis.

Write a 3-4 page paper that addresses each of the following topics. Use subtitles and headings to organize your paper. Research your answers to the questions below using scholarly sources, including national, university, and government websites, publications, and scientific journals. Cite your references throughout, and include a references section at the end.

  1. Begin by describing the origin of crude oil deposits in the ocean. What role did photosynthesis play in this process?
  2. Using full sentences in paragraph format define:

    The difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph

    The relationship between a photosynthetic autotroph and a chemotrophic autotroph

    Nitrification
    Ammonia oxidation

  3. Why is nitrogen important to living systems?
  4. How are these metabolic pathways similar to photosynthesis?
  5. From the Urakawa et al. (2012) paper: Why was nitrite production used to measure the activity of the microbes in the study?
  6. What is a bioassay? Why did the scientists use it in this study?
  7. Which organisms showed sensitivity to oil toxicity? What happened to nitrite production in these organisms? How did nitrite production relate to growth?

Here is a diagram to help as you consider these metabolic pathways:

From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository

SLP Assignment Expectations

The Session Long Project consists of an integrative project emphasizing the personalized application of each module’s concepts. For Modules 1–5, students are required to engage in an original integrative project reflecting their comprehensive knowledge of and ability to apply the course materials. Each component of the SLP will be graded on a modular basis.

Your essay is considered a scholarly work. You will be provided with many scholarly references to begin each assignment. For any additional research you are required to do to complete your assignment, please use scholarly references such as a peer reviewed journal article or a government sponsored or university sponsored website. As you read through your sources, take notes from your sources and then write your paper in your own words, describing what you have learned from your research.  Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks.  Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example (Murray, 2014). Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit.

When you write your essay, please organize your paper to include an introduction (overview of the assignment), body with subtitles (reflecting the requirements of the assignment), and a summary (develop connections between the required topics).

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