Balancing of Rotating Machines

BALANCING OF ROTATING MACHINES The first thing to be explored to control vibrations is to try to alter the source so that it produces less vibration. This method may not always be feasible. Some examples of the sources of vibration that cannot be altered are earthquake excitation, atmospheric turbulence, road roughness, and engine combustion instability. On the other hand, certain sources such as unbalance in rotating or reciprocating machines can be altered to reduce the vibrations.
This can be achieved, usually, by using either internal balancing or an increase in the precision of machine elements. The use of close tolerances and better surface finish for machine parts (which have relative motion with respect to one another) make the machine less susceptible to vibration. Of course, there may be economic and manufacturing constraints on the degree of balancing that can be achieved or the precision with which the machine parts can be made. The presence of an eccentric or unbalanced mass in a rotating disc causes vibration, which may be acceptable up to a certain level.
If the vibration caused by an unbalanced mass is not acceptable, it can be eliminated either by removing the eccentric mass or by adding an equal mass in such a position that it cancels the effect of the unbalance. In order to use this procedure, we need to determine the amount and location of the eccentric mass experimentally. The unbalance in practical machines can be attributed to such irregularities as machining errors and variations in sizes of bolts, nuts, rivets, and welds. In this section, we shall consider two types of balancing: The static unbalance can be corrected by removing (drilling) metal at the chalk mark or by adding a weight at 180° from the chalk mark. Since the magnitude of unbalance is not known, the amount of material to be removed or added must be determined by trial and error. This procedure is called single-plane balancing, since all the mass lies practically in a single plane. •The single-plane balancing procedure can be used for balancing in one plane that is, for rotors of the rigid disc type.

If the rotor is an elongated rigid body, the unbalance can be anywhere along the length of the rotor. In this case, the rotor can be balanced by adding balancing weights in any two planes. For convenience, the two planes are usually chosen as the end planes of the rotor. However, in many practical applications, such as turbines, compressors, electric motors, and pumps, a heavy rotor is mounted on a lightweight, flexible shaft that is supported in bearings. There will be unbalance in all rotors due to manufacturing errors.
These unbalances as well as other effects, such as the stiffness and damping of the shaft, gyroscopic effects, and fluid friction in bearings, will cause a shaft to bend in a complicated manner at certain rotational speeds, known as the whirling, whipping, or critical speeds. Whirling is defined as the rotation of the plane made by the line of centers of the bearings and the bent shaft. Reference link: http://classof1. com/homework-help/engineering-homework-help

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