Review of the article Changes in use of long-acting contraceptive methods in the United States, 2007–2009
What are the trends of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods- implant and IUD-and to what extent have they replaced less-effective short-term method and permanent sterilization?
Primary Empirical Sources
Primary empirical sources include books and articles that represent the original works of an author, and the authors describe the process of data collection (Polit and Beck, 2008). The reason for identifying the articles below as primary empirical sources is because they uses the original works of the author and includes sections for methods and results. They include:
This represents theoretical articles and books where the author presents the theory as their own. Examples of primary sources in the article include:
Secondary Empirical Sources
The article has used some secondary sources that describe the work of others. Examples of secondary sources are:
How Current are the References?
Majority of the articles are current with nine of them being between 2010 and 2013. However, the articles have some out-dated references with six between 2005 and 2009 and two below 2005. The years that would be current for this study are from 2010 to 2013.
Identification of Relevance Studies
Although the study has used relevant studies, the authors failed to identify the relevance of the used articles. However, the relevant studies can be determined by checking on Google scholar and Web science tool.
Description of Relevance Theories
One theory that has been described by the study is that LARC methods substitute the permanent sterilization and less-effective short-acting methods. However, the results of the study, illustrated that use of LARC methods substitutes the use of less-effective short-acting methods. Nevertheless, LARC use does not substitute permanent sterilization.
Another theory is that majority of women prefers family planning methods that do not rely on repeated and frequent clinic visits. The article describes this by comparing short-acting methods like condoms and pills with LARC methods. Studies illustrates that the effectiveness of IUD together with its importance has facilitated its use. This has increased the number of women preferring these methods from 2.4% in 2002 to 5.6% in 2006-2008 (Finer, Jerman, & Kavanaugh, 2012).
The article uses some relevant studies. Some of the studies that I identified as landmark relevance include:
According to Dickersin, Scherer, Lefebvre (1994), a relevant landmark articles in a paper are identified if, their frequency of identification and appears at the start of a chapter. I also used web of science and Google scholar to identify if the frequently used articles are relevant landmarks. The two tools assisted in selecting the two articles as relevant landmarks in the study.
Critique of Relevance Studies
In contrary with many scholarly articles and journals, this study has not critiqued the relevance articles used. This is an illustration of inadequate research or there was no knowledge gap.
The article has paraphrased most of its references to promote the flow of the presented content. Some of the paraphrased sentences in the article include:
Description of Current Research Knowledge
The current research knowledge has been properly described. This is because majority of articles used were less than three years old. The article used nine references between 2010 and 2012. However, there are some discrepancies between the age of the articles used and the conclusion delivered from the data. For example, majority of articles in referenced are between 2010 and 2012. However, the conclusion delivered from the whole study is from 2006-2008. Therefore, the authors failed to utilize the modern articles to build on the trend and knowledge on the literature review.
Literature Review Knowledge Gap
The literature review in the research article has identified a gap in the knowledge base which provided the base of this study. The authors used statements to describe the knowledge data that facilitated this study.
Presentation of Literature Review
The authors used a logical and clearly organized literature review. For example, the authors started the literature review by identifying the current situation of American women. They included the statistics of unplanned pregnancies and the age that they highly occur. This was followed by examining the use of LARC method in comparison with other family planning methods and its importance. Lastly, the researchers identified the gap and the reason for undertaking the study. The study is also concisely written.
Use of Literature Review in Building a Case for the Study
In a systematic way, the authors have used literature review to build the case of this study. They used articles from 1999 to 2012 to explain the trend of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods -implant and IUD- use. The literature review also added knowledge on how the LARC methods have replaced less-effective short-acting method and permanent sterilization.
Dickersin, K., Scherer, R., & Lefebvre, C. (1994). Identifying relevant studies for systematic reviews. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 309(6964), 1286.
Finer, L., Jerman, J., & Kavanaugh, M. (2012). Changes in use of long-acting contraceptive methods in the United States, 2007–2009. Fertility And Sterility, 98(4), 893-897. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.06.027
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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