Tympanic Membrane and the Thyroid Gland

The tympanic membrane is a cone-shaped and thin membrane that is found between the middle ear and the external ear . The membrane is a medium of passage of sound from outer ear the inner parts of the ear which include the oval window and the inner ossicles. The tympanic membrane is also called the eardrum and it has a breadth of 8 t 10 mm and a thickness of 0.1 mm with a mass of about 14 mg (English et al., 2015). despite of its size, the membrane is has a high degree of adaptability and hard to harm (Wang et.al, 2015). On the other hand, the thyroid gland is a ductless gland that exists in the neck with a major function of hormone secretion and regulation of growth and development in animals through the metabolism process.

The tympanic membrane

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The tympanic membrane changes and opens up air vibrations to fluid vibrations. The malleus bone crosses the barrier between the eardrum and the alternate ossicles. When the eardrum breaks, it can cause loss of conductive hearing which can in turn lead to cholesteatoma or conductive hearing loss. The tympanic membrane is made up of three layers of tissue which include the a layer of mucous stratum on the deeper surface, the external cutaneous layer, and the fibrous middle layer

Tympanic Membrane Perforation

The perforation of the tympanic membrane is mostly brought about by injury or contamination. The injuries can range from crack in the skull, or explosive injury when the ear is hit severely. In less circumstance, perforations of the tympanic membrane is brought about by foreign items like instruments with cotton tips and bobby pins inserted deep inside the ear to the outer auditory canal or 

Management of tympanic membrane 

In most cases, the tympanic membrane amends itself immediately after it breaks but its recuperation may take a while. Therefore, when the head is harmed of the fleeting bone cracks, a patients needs to be watched to make sure that there is no otorrhea or cerebrospinal liquid rhinorrhea (English et al., 2015). Most importantly, the ear should be kept free from water during the amendment process. Also, in extreme cases, surgical administration, Tympanoplasty, can be carried out in the tympanic membrane.  

The Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland comprises of two parallel projections that are associated with an isthmus. The thyroid gland is about 3 cm wide and 5 centimeters long with a weight of about 30 grams. The thyroid gland has a high blood stream of about 5 ml/min per gram of the thyroid tissue which is about five times the flow of blood stream in the liver. The high blood stream shows is an evidence of high metabolic action that takes place in the thyroid gland (Buttaro, 2017). The three hormones that are produced in the thyroid gland are calcitonin, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Triiodothyronine and thyroxine are the two hormones that are known as the thyroid hormone.

Function and dysfunction thyroid of the thyroid gland

The thyroid capacity is controlled by different chemical hormones and the major ones include the thyroid hormone, iodine, and the calcitonin. The thyroid organ creates the thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which contain amino acids that have iodine particles that are bound to the corrosive nature of the amino acids (Wang et al., 2015). The Thyroxine has for iodine iotas in each particle whereas triiodothyronine has three iodine iotas in each particle (Buttaro, 2017). The combination of the two hormones is meant to put away protein bound cells in the thyroid glands until the required discharge in the circulation of the system is achieved. About 75% of bound thyroid hormone is bound to thyroxine-tying globulin; the thyroid-tying albumin and prealbumin is bound to staying bound thyroid hormone.

Tympanic Film Issue 

The center ear may be a substitute to contamination and the Eustachian injury, impediment. The ear contains data from different segments which include cerebral pain, nasal check, rhinorrhea, URI, systemic indications, hypersensitivities, sore throat, and fever help conclusion (Buttaro, 2017). When the outside sound-related trench and the tympanic layer is present, the finding is yielded regularly. As a result, English et al. (2015) argue that the oropharynx, nasopharynx and the nose are analyzed to show whether there are sensitivity and contamination for the confirmation tumors. 

Whisper test

To ensure that one ear is bar from testing and the results achieved are effective, the untested ear is covered by the palm. The inspector then whispers delicately from the separation of about one to two feet from the unclouded ear and away from the sight of the patient (Wang et al., 2015).  Ordinary sharpness and persistence and rehash what was whispered.

Weber test

 This test uses the conduction of bone to test lateralization of sound utilizes bone conduction to test sound where turning fork is set on the heat or on the forehead of the patient (Hegerova et al., 2015). This test relies on the fact that an individual with ordinary listening hears sound similarly in both ears or depicts the sound as it is focused on his or her head. A tuning fork is set on the patient’s forehead or head (Buttaro, 2017). On the other hand, an individual with sensorineural listening due to the harm on the vestibulocochlear nerve or the cochlear hears the sound through the ear that is not damaged. On the other hand, individuals with conductive hearingproblems like the otosclerosis or otitis media hear the sound best on the ear which has been influenced. 

Inspecting the thyroid organ utilizing both the front and back strategies

The thyroid gland is an organ that is butterfly shaped and is located in the lower neck in front of the traches and releases calcitonin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) hormones. Individuals with normal hearing hears the sound equally in both ears or can describe the sound as centered in the center of their heads (Hegerova et al., 2015). Elsewhere, people with sensorial hearing loss as a result of the damaged vestibulocochlear or cochlear hear sound clearly on the better hearing ear. However, people with constructive hearing loss hear sound clearly through the affected ear thus leading to hearing loss.

Examining the thyroid gland using both the posterior and anterior methods

Posterior examination

The posterior examination of the thyroid glands comprise of four different steps. The first step requires that the patient be in a sited or a standing position. Secondly, the care provider should stand behind the patient so that he or she can locate the position of the glands properly (Wang et al., 2015). Thirdly, the analyst should move his or her hand to the position of patient’s neck for the purpose of locating the thyroid glands (Hegerova et al., 2015). Lastly, the patient should take a sip of water so that the analyst can feel the upward and the downward movement of the thyroid glands. .

The anterior examination

The anterior examination of the thyroid gland on the other hand involves three steps. First, patients should be standing or sited with their necks slightly extended or in a neutral position (Wang et al., 2015). Secondly, analysts can use cross lighting to help them increase the shadow thus improving the detection of masses (Sherwood, 2015). The third step involves extension of the patient’s neck and then make the patient swallow a sip of water to stretch the tissues as the upward movement of the thyroid gland is watched. The extension of the neck ensures that the glands is properly visualized.

Assessment and analytic discoveries

All patients require routine palpation and exploration of the thyroid glands. The first point towards examination involves recognition and confirmation of turning points through the examination of the sternocleidomastoid muscles to determine whether there is swelling(Shrivastav, 2014). Therefore, the patient is advised to build up the neck at a degree and swallow (Sherwood, 2015). The examination then dissects the thyroid from the back or first position with the isthmus seen as firm and of a versatile band consistency.

The isthmus is the part of the thyroid gland that is completely discernable and when the patients neck is slight, too smooth, or too slender, it is essential to us the contender flaps (Wang et al., 2015). When palpation shows that the thyroid organ is expanded, the projections are auscultated using the stethoscope’s stomach to distinguish the hearing of bruit vibration (Shrivastav, 2014). As a result, the extended blood course through the thyroid organ requires attention of a doctor while referral to extra assessment is required when there is delicacy, nodularity, and development inside the thyroid. 

Conclusion

An outpatient setting requires that medical practice should comprise of regular determination of sickness. Also, subjective and target segments are required in managing the tympanic membrane and thyroid glands. The problems with the two organ affect many people around the world and therefore need serious attention. To curb the condition, it is essential to report the problem to the doctors to help curb the conditions since there lacks medicinal remedies to the problems associated with it. 

References 

Buttaro, T. M. (2017). Primary care: A collaborative practice.

English, C., Casey, R., Bell, M., Bergin, D., & Murphy, J. (2016). The Sonographic Features of the Thyroid Gland After Treatment with Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Graves’ Disease. Ultrasound in medicine & biology,42(1), 60-67.

Hegerova, L., Griebeler, M. L., Reynolds, J. P., Henry, M. R., & Gharib, H. (2015). Metastasis to the thyroid gland: report of a large series from the Mayo Clinic. American journal of clinical oncology38(4), 338-342.

Sherwood, L. (2015). Human physiology: From cells to systems.

Shrivastav, R. P. (2014). Illustrated textbook: Ear, nose & throat and head & neck surgery. Place of publication not identified: Jaypee Brothers medical p.Wang, A. Y., Shen, Y., Liew, L. J., Wang, J. T., von Unge, M., Atlas, M. D., & Dilley, R. J. (2015). Searching for a rat model of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: Healing delayed by mitomycin C/dexamethasone but not paper implantation or iterative myringotomy. International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology79(8), 1240-1247.

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