Pathophysiology

Introduction

Different people suffer from various conditions. While some diseases and conditions are treatable, some are unable to treat and thus are only controlled. It is, however, easy to manage most of the diseases and conditions if they are detected earlier to avoid fatalities. Below are some diseases and conditions and ways in which individuals respond to them.

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Cystitis.

Question 1

Cystitis refers is the inflammation of the bladder wall, which occurs when the urethra and bladder get infected with bacteria. It affects both men and women but is more common among women because women have a shorter urethra than men and, therefore, the distance in which the bacteria has to travel to reach the bladder is reduced (Hanno et al., 2011). 

Question 2

The condition is often not preventable, but below are some measures that may help.

–      Application of lubricants when engaging in sexual intercourse

–      Wiping from front to back to avoid spreading bacteria from the feces to the genitals.

–      Avoid holding urine in the bladder for long. Urination should never be postponed

–      Moreover, when urinating, it is advisable to empty the bladder completely

–      Individuals should avoid wearing tight pants or underwear

–      Practicing proper hygiene after sex

–      Use of neutral and unperfumed soaps around the genitalia when bathing

–      Wearing cotton underwear

Question 3

The common signs and symptoms of cystitis include:

–      Presence of blood traces in the urine

–      Dark cloudy urine with a strong smell

–      Pain in various parts of the body, forexample, above the pubic bone, in the lower back, and the abdomen

–      Feeling of a burning sensation when urinating  

–      Urinating frequently or feeling the urge of urinating frequently

–      Among older people, a feeling of weakness and feverish might also indicate cystitis even though the above signs and symptoms may not be present

Question 4

Potential problems that she may experience if she does not adhere to the treatment prescribed

Cystitis rarely leads to complications when treated promptly. However, failure to comply with the treatment prescribed may result in the following complications:

–      Kidney infection- untreated bladder infections are likely to lead to kidney infection, and the infection may damage the kidneys ultimately.

–      The persistent presence of blood in the urine.

Prostate Cancer

Question 1

Several reasons may cause man’s PSA levels to rise, and they include prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia. On the contrary, the presence of abnormalities in the prostate glands is a possible cause of prostate cancer. In the case of Mr. Rader, the presence of the hard nodule on the gland’s periphery could lead to inflammation of the glands and thus affect the process of exiting urine from the body and consequently result in bacterial infection. Such abnormalities in the prostate are highly likely to cause prostate cancer.

Question 2

Some of the factors that increase a man’s chance of developing prostate cancer are as follows.

 Age: the risk of developing prostate cancer increases with increase in age. Young men mostly below the age of 40 years are less likely to be diagnosed with cancer while older men, most likely of age 65 years and above, are at a higher risk of developing the condition (Heidenreich et al., 2011).

Race: Black men, mostly of African or Jamaican origin, have a higher risk of prostate cancer than white men. They are also tend to develop it at an earlier age, and the tumors may be more aggressive and thus grow quickly, unlike the case in white men.

Family history-a member of a family that has had previous patients of prostate cancer or breast cancer is at higher risk of developing prostate cancer as compared to individuals from families with no history of cancer.

Obesity- obese males who are diagnosed with cancer may experience more advanced disease of the condition, which may be more challenging to treat. 

Variation in the growth and course of prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer is more likely among older people, black men or individuals of the African origin and those in the North American and northern Europe and the diseases tends to spread faster and with bigger tumors among them. Moreover, people with direct relatives who have suffered from the same are also at a higher risk.

Osteoarthritis

Question 1

The signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include feeling pain after during or after movement, feeling a joint stiffness upon being inactive for a while, presence of hard lumps around the affected joint, and swellings or tissues inflammation around the joint. 

Question 2

 Anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics are effective in treating reducing pain patients who have the arthritis.  The mechanism applied involves inhibiting secretion of cyclooxygenase (COX),  the prostaglandin-generating enzymes which cause the inflammation feeling (Michael,  Schlüter-Brust,  & Eysel, 2010). Besides, moderate, non–weight-bearing exercises are recommended as they help strengthen the muscles around the affected joint, increase the flexibility of the patient, and reduce.   

Question 3

The probable prognosis for patients with osteoarthritis, like Mr. Filstrup, depends on the type of joints affected and whether he is getting impaired function. The condition does not affect some patients at all, yet it affects some individuals severely and may cause disability. Joint replacement surgery may be recommended as a long-term solution.

Conclusion

Cystitis is treatable but requires that they are diagnosed early enough and patients to follow the medication as prescribed to avoid dangers. Prostate cancer can be treated if detected at an early stage, and thus, individuals are advised to go for continuous screening to allow doctors to detect any abnormalities that may lead to it. Finally, Osteoarthritis is treatable, and patients are encouraged to seek medical advice immediately they start experiencing signs of the above diseases and any other diseases.

References

Hanno, P. M., Burks, D. A., Clemens, J. Q., Dmochowski, R. R., Erickson, D., FitzGerald, M. P., … & Newman, D. (2011). AUA guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. The Journal of urology, 185(6), 2162-2170.

Heidenreich, A., Bellmunt, J., Bolla, M., Joniau, S., Mason, M., Matveev, V., … & Zattoni, F. (2011). EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part 1: screening, diagnosis, and treatment of clinically localised disease. European urology, 59(1), 61-71.Michael, J. W. P., Schlüter-Brust, K. U., & Eysel, P. (2010). The epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 107(9), 152.

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