A recent article on the CBS News identified how neighborhood-policing program in New York has facilitated the building of relationships with the community and led to a reduction in the crime rate. In 2017, New York was reported to have recorded its lowest violent crime rates in decades. The country’s largest city police department had reported the largest ever reduction in crime rates. This was after the shooting incidents experienced, became less than 800 and the number of murders recorded being below 300 (Nandi, 2018). The murder rates reported for the year was the city’s lowest per-capita rate in more than 70 years. There was also a significant reduction in the number of robberies and burglaries in the city. At the center of these improvements, the NYPD attributed them to the concept of neighborhood policing. The Chief of Patrol revealed that there were more officers on the streets who were engaged in the process of enhancing the relationships. This has been noted to encouraged the concept of shared responsibility with the residents of the city. Through its Neighborhood Policing Program, the NYPD has focused its attention on deepening the community relationships by ensuring that the cops are accessible to community members, and not only when they respond to distress calls. Community relationship has been incorporated as an integral part of their daily lives.
From the success story of the New York Police Department, it is clear that the neighborhood community policing is an effective policing model. Community policing entails improvement of the interaction between the police and the citizens within the community in a positive manner and through a collaborative effort to prevent and control crime. The main purpose of establishing a neighborhood policing program is to improve the quality of life in the community. The objectives of such a program are to prevent and reduce crime, minimize fear for crime, enhance the physical conditions of the society, and inculcate a sense of safety among the community members. The concept of community policing envisions a police department working towards the absence of crime and disorder and concerned about the welfare of the society. This differs from traditional policing that attributed its success to the response times, the number of calls handled, and detection rates for high-level crime (Amadi, 2014).
The approach of community policing seeks to engage with the community members as an equal partner with law enforcement in a bid to solve the local crime and other societal disorder issues. Police officers engaged as neighborhood patrol and coordination officers have skills in public relations, community partnerships, as well as problem-solving skills. Various studies have revealed that community policing is essential in developing legitimacy and trust by holding meetings with community stakeholders on a regular basis to deal with the issues and concerns. This leads to an increase in public transport use and cooperation with the police provides a means of combating crime (Portland State University, 2011).
The advocates of community policing hold the view that it leads to the strengthening of the cohesion among community residents and social organizations, thereby, leading to a reduction in crime and disorder. Community policing entails flow of policing in both ways, which represents a proactive method of policing that leads to garnering positive public perception of the police. Community policing yields positive encounters with the police and enhances the confidence of the community with the police work. The collaboration thereby enhances increased crime reporting rates within the community (Przeszlowski & Crichlow, 2018)
Collaboration Strategies Between NCO Officers and Community
The New York Police Department, through its community policing unit, Precinct unit, is determined to enhance the connections between the residents and the NYPD through the community policing model. The model adopted in this case involves specially-trained officers who are assigned to specific neighborhood sections to associate with the residents and participate in community meetings. The model aimed at boosting engagement between the police and the community since it is the same officers who will be attached in the areas of Precinct for their daily duties. The Neighborhood Coordination Officers develops work groups through which they engage with the residents and stakeholders to identify problems and come up with solutions. The program covers all sorts of crimes, which makes the community feel that their concerns, however petty they might appear are considered. The community members have direct communication lines to the officers through cellphones, emails, or social media pages. These strategies that the NYPD have adopted for their community policing model has been effective in enhancing the relationship between the community members and the officers.
The training of the community-oriented officers needs to include everyone in the police force including the veteran officers and the new recruits. The training needs to encompass the measures to be used in the application of community policing methods. The police are trained on how to enhance mutual respect and trust.
Enhancing citizen Awareness of Policing, Community Policing, and Fear of Crime
Over the last two decades, police departments have been noted to have made attempts to enhance public trust and improve on police/community relationships and partnerships. This has been achieved using a variety of tactics and strategies. Among the strategies adopted is the citizen police academies that have been established with an aim of enhancing the relationship with the citizens and improve the attitudes of the citizens towards the police (Lord, Kuhns, & Friday, 2008). Awareness of the community-oriented policing has been noted to lead to a reduction in fear of crime and enhanced stronger feelings of the community towards the police. Increased police presence in the community neighborhoods has been associated with the creation of a strong impact on the reduction of fear. This is further enhanced through the adoption of the proactive/community-oriented policing strategies. It has been established that community policing enhances the perception of the public that police presence might cause a reduction in fear which, leads to increased public satisfaction with the police (Lord, Kuhns, & Friday, 2008). It has also been established that fear of crime may be reduced through the development of positive interactions between the police and citizens.
This strategy is based on the proposition that public safety issues are a reflection of other deeper problems. These other problems may be systematic such as infrastructure and public health. It can, therefore, be deduced that dealing with the conditions that lead to crime and disorder may produce long-lasting benefits in comparison to the traditional enforcement approach. The success of the problem-oriented policing model has been associated with two main elements, the application of the systematic process to identify and deal with the issues, and collaboration with community partners at all stages of the process.
Successful problem-oriented policing models are developed around systematic processes that can be applied by the officers to identify problems and come up with possible solutions. It has been revealed that lack of a formal process to guide the community policing efforts, could lead to the initiatives quickly losing focus or be inconsistent all over the agency. Among the systematic models that may be adopted include the Scan, Analyze, Respond, Assess (SARA) model. Scan stage requires the officers to establish the underlying problems that require to be handled by the police. The analyze stage involves attempts to establish the root causes and contributing factors. The respond stage involves the use of traditional police methods and non-enforcement approaches. The assess stage requires the evaluation of the extent to which the responses have addressed the problem at hand.
The other factor that is required to enhance a successful problem-solving policing model is community partnership. The stakeholders who may be engaged in this case include the residents, local businesses, not-for-profit organizations, religious leaders, and other government agencies. The stakeholders may be engaged in the following tasks. Firstly, inform the officers of the issues affecting the quality of life and other underlying condition that may be considered under crime statistics. Secondly, assist the police in establishing the priorities of dealing with these issues. Thirdly, assist in identifying the measures that are most likely to work best for the problems identified. Lastly, engage in community watch and other safety programs and assist the community police in identifying and implementing non-enforcement strategies to deal with the neighborhood concerns.
Among the strategy that is relevant in the identification of the partners is the asset mapping. Asset mapping entails developing a register of community resources and identifying the most likely partners to collaborate with on community-based initiatives. The assets considered in this case include both formal and informal community-based groups. Another approach that may be used to establish partners to engage in the community includes the use of formally established structures. These may include the neighborhood advisory groups, which may be engaged in the problem-solving activities. Police officers may attend the meetings by these advisory groups to seek the community input and come up with strategies to deal with quality of life issues. Some of the quality of life issues may include graffiti abatement, disorderly behavior, and street-level drug sales. The police need to be aware that not every segment of the community may be represented in such advisory groups. Therefore, implies this that the perspectives gathered may not represent the position of the larger community.
To facilitate fully a community policing based on problem-solving strategies the police departments need to establish a community engagement plan. This clearly outlines how the process of acquiring the community input to inform on the community policing would be utilized. The community members may be engaged in identifying the local groups and organization that would be appropriate representatives, assist the NCOs in identifying the underlying obstacles to their collaborative efforts, and offering input on how to ensure that members of the district policing committees come from all corners of the community thereby ensuring a just representation.
Community Policing Technologies
Another means that the NCOs may adopt to collaborate with the community is the use of community policing technologies. Some of the technologies that may beneficial to the activities of the community may include telephonic advances. Telephonic advances include the use of telephones and two-way policing for community policing. This tends to overburden law enforcement agencies due to incessant calls on trivial matters and minor crimes. This has seen some police departments develop an alternative line for non-emergency issues. The telephones technologies that may be adopted for the community policing include computer-aided dispatch (CAD), and auto-dialing alert network. Computer Aided Dispatch is a system that is dedicated to the role of the functioning of prioritizing calls from the citizens for police services. This system aids radio communication and to dispatch jobs to operational police. Auto-dialing alert network is a computerized system that allows law agencies to send pre-recorded messages on crime trends, suspicious persons, and suggestions on how to reduce victimization (Ezenkwu, Ozuomba, & Kalu, 2013).
Computer advances are the other technological advances that may enhance the collaboration between the community police and the community members. One of the requirements of the effective community policing is having sufficient knowledge categorized as local knowledge and local acquittance. Local knowledge refers to the knowledge that an officer had about their zone, while local acquittance refers to the knowledge that officers have about the community that they operate. The knowledge is gained from a collection and analysis of data. The computer advances have been very effective in achieving this. It has facilitated tasks such as collating, storing and sharing of knowledge. Some computerized systems include a mobile digital terminal, crime mapping, and data analytics (Ezenkwu, Ozuomba, & Kalu, 2013). The mobile digital terminal is in collaboration with CAD systems to assist in the in-car computer thereby, providing the officers with firsthand information about a crime before they get to the scene. Crime mapping is Geographic information system (GIS)-dependent technology that makes it possible to detect and track patterns of crimes in areas (Ezenkwu, Ozuomba, & Kalu, 2013). In-house data analytics program is a system that is used to assess the success of police initiatives to solve different problems.
Community Informatics Social Networks
In the digital era characterized by smartphones, tablets, notebooks, internet, and social networks applications, there have been improvements in the adoption of problem-solving techniques in the communities. The adoption of computing informatics has gained popularity as a field that can enhance the interaction of the local community, especially on the social informatics. Social media enables user participation, openness, conservation, and community connectedness (Ezenkwu, Ozuomba, & Kalu, 2013).
Measures to Reduce High Turn-over of NCOs Officer Dissatisfaction
Evidence indicates that more than half of the small agencies and over two-thirds of the large police departments have a shortage of qualified applicants. At least 56% of large agencies and 44% of the small agencies were noted to experience problems in maintaining staffing levels due to unanticipated vacancies.
The first method of minimizing the high rates of turnover among the NCOs officers starts right at the recruitment stage. The police recruiter needs to be a model of the officer the department seeks to employ. They ought to serve as a symbol of the community being served. A recruiter needs to possess qualities such as competency, energy, a proper understanding of the organization, policing style, and the organizational culture. With such traits, the recruiters are likely to support an effective recruitment program that brings into the unit the best applicants. Having a seamless recruitment process ensures that the NCO attracts qualified candidates for hiring. The selection process needs to be carried out in a professional, efficient, and timely manner, which conveys a positive interaction with the applicants (Kearns, 2007). The overall hiring process helps build the initial positive experience, reputation, and the general image of the agency. This has been indicated to have lasting effect amongst the officers and thereby contribute to the reduction of turnover rates.
Another means of reducing the high turnover rates amongst the NCO officers is to carry out recruitment in a highly competitive job market. The NCO programs need to attain the adequate numbers required to serve the community comfortably. The departments have to compete with federal law enforcement agencies. To get and retain the officers in such a competitive environment, the departments are known to apply different strategies. Some of these include partnering with local criminal justice programs, providing monthly exams, offering recruitment bonuses to staff, and establishing a fully fledged recruitment team (Wilson, & Grammich, 2009). It is important to extend the outreach to the community and ensure that the department strives to have a diverse department. These factors have been found to lead to the recruitment of officers who are likely to be dedicated to offering services to the community.
Another initiative that may be adopted to reduce the turnover rates is to include the strategic recruitment within the department. There is a need to create a positive brand of the police department as a premier employer of choice. The department should take initiatives geared towards aligning with the changing generational preferences such as the application of technological innovations at work and inclusion of more complex and thrilling responsibilities at work. Strategic recruitment has seen the departments make moves to recruit through college and university initiatives, military outreach, internet recruiting career fairs, and diversity programs.
To reduce the high turnover rates among the NCOs officers, it is essential to improve the job satisfaction of the officers. It has been observed that whenever the patrol officers experience poor job satisfaction they are compelled by circumstances to quit. This forces the police departments to incur extra costs to recruit and train the new officers (Can, Holt, & Hendy, 2016). Among the factors affecting the job satisfaction of the officers is their relationship with their supervisors. The supervisors who include sergeants and frontline supervisors play a critical role in directing and controlling the actions of the subordinate officers. The supervisory style is the main factor that affects the supervisors react to the subordinate officers. The command model is founded on the premise that sergeants will deal with giving formal authority, direct, and control subordinate officers’ behavior by enforcing department regulations and the requirement for them to act in a particular manner. The factor affecting the relationship between the police and the supervisors is the exchange and bargaining models adopted. This forms a ground for the mutual relationship between the officers and their supervisors. Supervisors have been observed to have a great amount of responsibility and influence over subordinate officers (Lee, 2014). This highlights the need for ensuring that the existence of an amicable relationship between the officers and their supervisors.
There are four main components of job satisfaction, which include expectations, needs, values, and need-value conflicts (Lee, 2014). These are noted to influence an individual officer’s reaction to the environment. The expectations held by the officers influence their job satisfaction based on whether they can achieve the expected outcome while performing their job. It is important to ensure that the job of community policing meets the individual’s needs including the physical and psychological needs. Another factor that should be considered to enhance the officers’ satisfaction is on the value that the officers either consciously or subconsciously desires, wants, or seeks to attain (Lee, 2014). Another factor that affects the level of satisfaction of the officers is the need-values conflict that considers how the values are congruent to the officers’ needs. The community police officers’ job satisfaction is directly related to citizen’s trust and police legitimacy (Lee, 2014). It can, therefore, be established that by ensuring the police officers attain high job satisfaction reduces the turnover rate and job stress.
How NCO Program Can Compliment Precision or Focused Enforcement and Assist in Reduction Crime
Precision policing refers to the systematic, proactive, and almost a precognitive approach to provide public safety. This seeks to organize the police agency’s structure on data and information, enhancing the investigation of high-value targets carrying out the majority of crimes. The precision policing promotes a collaborative inter-agency cooperation and with a focus on community collaboration. This enforcement plan has been noted to transfer the tasks that were exclusively handled by the detective to the whole agency. The NYPD notes that precision enforcement serves three main functions. Firstly, it provides officers with data to support their arrest thereby reducing arrests. Secondly, it enables officers to make arrests for the individuals carrying the most crime; and thirdly, it enhances their relationship with the community where they operate.
Precision planning comprises five pillars, which include trust, training, technology, terrorism, and tackling crime. The pillar of trust requires the development of inter-agency trust through collaborative policing and partnering with relevant agencies, non-profit organizations, community-based organizations, and religious groups. The NYPD has developed an online portal to provide information on crime and thereby, assist in the creation of stronger trust levels and accountability to the public. The second pillar on training is concerned with the need for de-escalation and using minimum possible force to take charge of situations. The pillar on technology mandates the improvements on technological infrastructure to allow a fast data access for different departments, security systems, and smart devices, which enhances their capacity for a better connection with the community. The pillar of training requires ample training and preparations for safe, effective crowd control, disorder response, crime reduction, and mobilizations. The pillar on tackling crime requires the whole agency to be engaged in the multi-profession teams comprised of local precinct detectives, and community patrol officers, gang detectives, narcotics officers, and juvenile justice investigators. Such a team brings on the table special investigative skills full of local knowledge and expertise to deal with the issues affecting the community such as violent gangs.
The NCO program can be effective in facilitating the successful implementation of precision policing. Among the most important strategies that can facilitate this include the problem-oriented policing. The problem-oriented policing are a proactive approach to policing that seeks to identify and solve different issues affecting the community. The problems affecting the community are considered to be a recurring set of related harmful events that the community members expect the police to deal with (Groff, Ratcliffe, Haberman, Sorg, Joyce, & Taylor, 2015). The problem-oriented model focuses on the adoption of non-law enforcement solutions integrated with the traditional responses to crime issues. The solutions to these issues are reached upon after an in-depth analysis of the problem. The strategy requires officers to carry out applied science in addressing the problems. This would work more effectively, where the officers are trained extensively on how to understand the problems (Groff, et al. 2015). The NCO program provides ample training to its officers and thereby, makes them ready for this task. The application of problem-oriented policing has been noted to have yielded measurable crime reductions.
Another component of the NCO program that can be effective in enhancing the precision policing is the use of foot patrol. The approach seeks to take advantage of the fact that deterrence can be attained by enhancing the perceived certainty of apprehension (Groff, et al. 2015). The NCO program involves increasing the localized police presence and enhancing the possibility that people committing a crime would be identified. This NCO strategy is limited by the extent of limited mobility by the officers. This then requires that the officer is situated in concentrated areas with people that they are familiar with, especially in areas regarded as crime hot spots. Research on the effectiveness of the foot patrol officers revealed that it contributed to enhancing the feelings of safety and citizen-police relations. Some other studies highlighted that the adoption of foot patrol officers led to a significant reduction of crime in Philadelphia by 23% (Groff, et al. 2015). Clearly, this shows that the use of foot patrol officers as part of the NCO program can be effective in enhancing precision policing.
Evidently, among the factors that make up community policing is the development of crime-and-disorder enforcement and neighborhood policing. These strategies identify that violent criminals who taint the community represent a small percentage of the society and that collaborating with the larger population is effective in strengthening communities and advocating that public safety is a shared responsibility (Bratton & Murad, 2018). Likewise, precision policing comprise of active collaboration between the police, leaders, and the community. Precision enforcement integrates the best practices gathered from different regions and is based on the understanding of the local conditions, which are appropriately customized.
An analysis of community policing using the cultural transformation theory reveals that NCO programs can enable the success of precision policing, thereby minimizing crime rates. Cultural transformation theory reveals that there is a need for policing agencies to evolve and adapt to dealing with the increasingly diverse communities. This theory advocates for the use of innovative strategies as opposed to the use of traditional approaches such as the use of force. The cultural transformation theory indicates that under the community policing program, the police objectives are to promote a community environment where the members and their property are safe and secure. These objectives are in line with the proposition of the pillars of precision policing. The implication of this is that the citizens feel safe and secure. The duty of reducing the fear of crime has been a component of the traditional aim of community policing (McKee & Lewis, 2016).
Another strategy adopted for the NCO program that can enhance the success of precision enforcement and reduction in crime rates is the technological advances in crime mapping. The NYPD’s crime technological tool used is referred to as the CompStat. This technological advancement allows the community policing to carry out a crime mapping and assess the level of accountability. This tool facilitates the operation of precision policing, which is considered an organizing principle focused on dealing with obstacles of structuring, managing, motivating, and leading the police department with an aim of making the community safer and fairer.
Causes of High Turnover Rate among Neighborhood Policing Program (NCO)
It is indicated that among the challenges failing the NCO is a high turn over rate. To highlight the extent of these issues, it has been indicated that just after 21 months since its formation, the neighborhood program in the 101 Precinct had witnessed about 15 different NCOs. Among the cause noted to be leading to this is the effect of extensive training that the NCO officers acquire before being engaged in the program. It is noted this training offers the officers extensive training, especially on detective courses. The nature of training is very informative to an extent that it elevates the skills level of the officers. The officers consider the training as a steppingstone and use the skills acquired to secure positions in other organization.
The nature of the NCO program was susceptible to experiencing the high turnover rate. It is pointed out that the training provided to the officers’ concentrated much on the NCO program itself without touching much on how to enhance the retention of the officers. The program at first lacked a specific budget to fund it and had to rely on pledges from financial resources acquired from asset forfeiture funds (Kapp, 2017). This must have impeded the operational effectiveness of the officers with a possibility of pushing some to leave their positions for lack of support and resources to implement the NCO initiatives.
Another major factor that causes high turnover rates of the officers is on the personal characteristics of the respective officers. This has been known to either fuel the turnover intention or actual voluntary turnover. Among the personal characteristics of officers associated with the high turnover rate include age, tenure, gender, educational level, and marital status. These factors play a critical role in the officers’ turnover intent or actual turnover (Wareham, Smith, & Lambert, 2013). The personal attributes, therefore, play a critical role in determining whether an individual officer will leave his/her position.
The turnover itself has a triggering effect where the rates of the turnover cascade to higher rates amongst the remaining officers after the initial turnovers are experienced. A major effect of turnover rates is that it negatively influences the remaining officers. A major effect has been noted to be increased levels of frustration amongst the remaining officers. This is due to the increase in the workloads demands, which negatively affect the nature of social relations with the remaining co-workers. Turnover itself acts as a source of demoralization, which then causes a further turnover (Wareham, Smith, & Lambert, 2013).
The discussion above has highlighted that the approach of community policing seeks to engage with the community members as an equal partner with the law enforcement in the bid to solve the local crime and other societal disorder issues. The supporters of community policing hold the view that it leads to the strengthening of the cohesion among community residents and social organizations thereby, leading to a reduction in crime and disorder. Collaboration strategies between NCO Officers and Community can be enhanced through training, enhancing citizen awareness of policing, community policing, and fear of crime. Other methods of collaboration include collaborative problem solving, community policing technologies and community informatics social networks. Measures to reduce high turn-over of NCOs officers dissatisfaction requires having a seamless recruitment process to ensure that the NCO attracts qualified candidates for the hiring, carry out recruitment in a highly competitive job market, inclusion the strategic recruitment within the department, and ensuring job satisfaction of the officers. The components of job satisfaction, which include: expectations, needs, values, and need-value conflicts. NCO program has been described to have the ability to facilitate precision or focused enforcement and assist in reducing crime through strategies such as the problem-oriented policing, the use of foot patrol, and the technological advances on crime mapping.
Amadi, E. N. (2014). A qualitative analysis of community policing in the United States. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(1), 19-26.
Bratton, W., & Murad, J. (2018). Precision Policing: A Strategy for the Challenges of 21st Century Law Enforcement. Manhattan Institute. Retrieved from https://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/urban-policy-2018-precision-policing-strategy-21st-century-law-enforcement-11508.html
Can, S. H., Holt, W., & Hendy, H. M. (2016). Patrol Officer Job Satisfaction Scale (POJSS) Psychometrics and associations with individual and police department demographics. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 39(4), 710-722.
Ezenkwu, C. P., Ozuomba, S., & Kalu, C. (2013). Strategies for improving community policing in Nigeria through Community Informatics Social Network. In Emerging & Sustainable Technologies for Power & ICT in a Developing Society (NIGERCON), 2013 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 163-168). IEEE.
Groff, E. R., Ratcliffe, J. H., Haberman, C. P., Sorg, E. T., Joyce, N. M., & Taylor, R. B. (2015). Does what police do at hot spots matter? The Philadelphia policing tactics experiment. Criminology, 53(1), 23-53.
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Kapp, T. (2017). Neighborhood Policing Change Attitudes and Reaping Benefits, Says NYPD. Retrieved from https://www.dnainfo.com/new-york/20170406/central-harlem/nypd-neighborhood-policing-nco-community-police-department/
Lee, S. U. (2014). Police officer job satisfaction and officer-Sergeant educational levels: A relational demography perspective. Illinois State University. Retrieved from https://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/etd/237/
McKee, A. J., & Lewis, A. L. (2016). The New Community Policing: Developing a Partnership-Based Theoretical Foundation. Interdisciplinary Journal of Partnership, 3(3).
Nandi, A. (2018). Neighbourhood Policing Program Builds Relationships to Cut Crime. CBS News. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/nypd-community-policing-lower-crime/
Portland State University. Criminology and Criminal Justice Senior Capstone, “Police Community Partnerships: A Review of the Literature” (2011). Criminology and Criminal Justice Senior Capstone Project. Paper 7.
Przeszlowski, K. S., & Crichlow, V. J. (2018). An Exploratory Assessment of Community-Oriented Policing Implementation, Social Disorganization, and Crime in America. Social Sciences, 7(3), 35.
Suszan, B. (2017). What is Precision Policing? SpotCrime. Retrieved from http://blog.spotcrime.com/2017/05/what-is-precision-policing.html
Wareham, J., Smith, B. W., & Lambert, E. G. (2015). Rates and patterns of law enforcement turnover: A research note. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 26(4), 345-370.Wilson, J. M., & Grammich, C. A. (2009). Police recruitment and retention in the contemporary urban environment. In Conference Proceedings). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
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