Introduation_for_Obesity Revised.

Background

Obesity remains a major health setback for Americans given it accelerates the risks of type 2 diabetes, stroke, coronary artery disease, cancer, and even stroke. Obesity also accelerates the mortality and economic costs, with most industrialized countries having similar obesity rates in the United States. Obese individuals incur an average of $1,429, especially in medical expenses annually. At least $147 billion is spent on medical expenses annually with the number expected to increase to at least $1.24. In 2015, 600 million grown-ups (12%) and 100 million youngsters were obese in 195 nations (GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators, 2017). In the United States, 39.8% of grown-ups considered obese with at least, 7.6% with challenging conditions and 31.8% were overweight (Fryar, Carroll and Ogden, 2018. Obesity is further is believed to contribute at least 400,000 deaths in the United States alone, with further increased expenditures amounting to $117 billion, for diagnostic, preventive and treatment services, while combined related to the weight challenges. Given the trajectory of the medical challenge, the World Health Organization encourages healthier lifestyles, for instance, regular exercise (WHO, 2018).). Besides, given the increase in the application of mechanization and technology for resource mobilization, population continue being obese (Blackburn, and Walker, 2005). 

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West Virginia reports demonstrate that elevated obese related rates among grown-ups and while teenagers 10-17 and the youths are at relatively high risk (The State of Obesity, 2019). The study further takes note of that stoutness rates expanded from 13.7% in 1990 to 38.1% in 2000. More than one-fourth of grown-ups (28.8%) drink pop or pop day-by-day (West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources, 2019). Kubala (2018) cautions sugar-improved beverages, for example, drinks (pop), juices, and sweet teas over-burden with fructose, and high levels of sugars. Most food nourishments populate their foods with sugar; however, they fail to inform the public that high sugar levels accelerate the foods. High sugar levels challenge the Leptin hormone useful in hunger management often presents a false indication that causes resistance to leptin. Obesity rarely contributes to death, however, it accelerates the occurrence of other diseases such, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular illnesses, which are connected given the fat potential (Park and Ahima, 2015). Without improved strategies for a positive lifestyle challenge, for example, setting up physical exercise programs community and institutions, drugs and alcohol-free youth, obesity will continue being a major impediment to future populations. 

Target Population & Ecological Context 

Obesity is also believed to be a major health detriment causing mortality and morbidity often challenging individuals throughout humankind’s lifecycle. During pregnancy, overweight is a prognosticator of gestational diabetes among women while mother to child obesity equally affects infants. Given the undesirable lifestyle affecting much of our youth, obesity remains a major challenge given the poor advice they happen to receive on the epidemic trajectory (Deckelbaum and Williams, 2001). Obese related during the youth period is an astounding general medical problem. For adults, the primary driver of obesity including poor lifestyle, hereditary challenges as well challenged dietary plan. Lifestyle challenges further incorporate physical action, dormancy, medicine use, dietary examples, and different exposures, adversely influence the general strength of a person. Other causal factors such as excessive advertisement of junk foods, possibilities of ill-advised lifestyles, mechanization of work, video games/ television, and other forms of entertainment accelerate the possibility of obesity and related crisis. Computer games and TV are frequently exercised that understudies go-to for excitement purposes. Without legitimate supervision, understudies urged to remain inside as opposed to take an interest in physical exercises outside. 

According to the 2018 population estimates, West Virginia had at least 1.8 million individuals, with at least 20% being youths (US Census Bureau, 2019). Sadly, in the states, at least 20% populace receives Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, while other packages include private protection (45.1%), trailed by Medicare (24.3%) and Medicaid (15.9%). The family unit’s family is at least $44,061 (West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources, 2019). Most families are under the Medicare and Medicaid program, which is essentially a useful insurance cover; this would be useful in combating healthcare challenges. Poor financial status and wellbeing were most noteworthy in Boone, Fayette, Lincoln, Logan, McDowell, Mercer, Mingo, and Wyoming regions (Yancey, 2015). 

Although Medicare and Medicaid help to assist individuals affected by the challenge, financially, the medical problem is a major challenge, as most of the affected could not be engaged in gainful activity. A 2016 report assessed that the West Virginia human services costs because of stoutness would arrive at an expected $2.4 billion every year by 2018. Affected adults spend at least 42% of their average earnings in tackling the medical challenge that is 81% higher as compared to other individuals. As noted, obesity challenges are related to lower profitability while at work costing businesses $506 per citizen annually while Medical cases cost $7,503 for management of the condition rather than $51,091 for stout specialists (Department of Health and Human Resources, 2016). These costs demonstrate the need to have an alternative plan for managing the medical challenge.  

The expansion in obese related pervasiveness experienced in West Virginia from pre-younger students to puberty illustrates the possible policy breakdown. An increase in Childhood Obesity accelerates in among center school (male and female) ages is 20.3% (Holdren, 2018 and The State of Obesity, 2019). Some schools have policies in regulating obese growth, for instance introducing early dietary plans for students, regular physical exercises and counseling programs. However, despite the overall effort towards aiding students in regulating the challenge, cooperation in physical training shows that around 24% of teenagers were committed to established physical exercises. Another 17.3% did avoid in any event an hour of physical movement on any day during the 7 days before the study. Furthermore, 31.5% stared at the TV at least 3 hours out of each day on a normal school day. The West Virginia School Health Outlines school condition among secondary school situations that would help teenagers to tackle the medical problem. The report demonstrates that 81.6% did not sell less nutritious nourishments and refreshments anywhere outside the school sustenance administrative programs, 4.0% consistently offered natural products or non-singed vegetables in candy machines and school stores, containers, or café, and during festivities at whatever point nourishments and drinks were advertised. Another 46.8% section of policies regulated the advertisements of candy and sugary foods targeting children (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2012). The policy would be catered for students inside the school, and the environs, but was also advocated for the local community, advising parents to support institutions towards curbing obese growth rates. 

Besides, 80% of West Virginia schools are encouraged to participate in farm to school programs that would help institutions to promote their agriculture such as planting vegetables around the school area (Holdren, 2018). At least 20.8% of children in West Virginia were living in homes that were limited to certain foods at a given period. As well, addressing food insecurity would help contain the growing health problems while creating a significant risk management approach towards containing behavioral problems often associated with academic difficulties.  

Immediate (behavioral) Objective

In particular, for the policy activeness, Middle School students are constantly engaged in physical education, with efforts focused on controlling challenging lifestyle behavior. Students are requested to control the relationship between height and weight, which presents dysfunctional situations that accelerate depression, stress, and anxiety that might result in obesity. Students need to understand the severity of obesity-related cases, considering their ability to accelerate old age diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Students need to understand the possible high calories sustenance as well they are advised to adopt to stronger and good life patterns. More so, students also need to understand the possible risks and indicators that might challenge obesity cases, creating weight self-measurements. Students should realize the imperativeness of physical training is a significant system to get a decent life design. 

In comparison with these policy establishments, at least 75% of students need to understand the policy configuration, more so understanding the possibilities endangerment of policies that might accelerate the risks of obesity, while considering self-measurements and possible program implementation. This goal is connected to the Health Belief Model parts of apparent weakness and saw the seriousness of corpulence.  

Important Objectives 

Students need to understand how to check and regulate their health behavior by identifying the challenges that lead to obesity such as lifestyle challenges. Meanwhile, students need to understand the challenge accelerated by high sugary intakes especially defragmented throughout multiple programs. Understanding the causes of high obesity rates prepares individuals towards learning how to tackle the medical challenge. As such, stakeholders, including schools, health facilities, students, and parents need to enact physical training, and lifestyle change formulas encourage students to appreciate a lower BMI body.

Long (Health) Objectives 

West Virginia and the Federal government need to implement a long-term policy for tackling obesity, especially in students. While the current policy advises the advertisements of junky food to students, the policy should be specific especially in controlling the challenges. The government should be specific in collecting data concerning the trajectory of obesity for it to specify the areas that need support in containing the challenge.

References

Blackburn, G. L., & Walker, W. A. (2005). Science-based solutions to obesity: what are the roles of academia, government, industry, and health care?–. The American journal of clinical nutrition82(1), 207S-210S.

Deckelbaum, R., & Williams, C. (2001). Childhood Obesity: The Health Issue. Obesity Research9(S11), 239S-243S. doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.125

Department of Health and Human Resources. (2016). Addressing Obesity and Related Chronic Diseases a strategic plan to combat obesity and related chronic diseases in West Virginia. Retrieved 1 September 2019, from https://dhhr.wv.gov/hpcd/Documents/WV%20Obesity%20State%20Plan%20DHHR%20Final-July%202016%20Update.pdf

Fryar, C., Carroll, M., & Ogden, C. (2018). Products – Health E Stats – Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Extreme Obesity Among Adults Aged 20 and Over: the United States, 1960–1962 Through 2013–2014. Retrieved 31 August 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_adult_15_16/obesity_adult_15_16.htm 

GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators. (2017). Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years. New England Journal Of Medicine377(1), 13-27. doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1614362

Holdren, W. (2018). More than 20 percent of WV youth are obese. Retrieved 1 September 2019, from https://www.register-herald.com/health/more-than-percent-of-wv-youth-are-obese/article_42bbed16-d0f7-51d1-8dd8-fa454d90d563.html

Kubala, J. (2018). 11 Reasons Why Too Much Sugar Is Bad for You. Retrieved 31 August 2019, from https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/too-much-sugar

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2012). West Virginia: State nutrition, physical activity, and obesity profile. Retrieved 1 September 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/stateprograms/fundedstates/pdf/west-virginia-state-profile.pdf

Park, H., & Ahima, R. (2015). Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and metabolism. Metabolism64(1), 24-34. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.08.004

The State of Obesity. (2019). The state of obesity in West Virginia. Retrieved 31 August 2019, from https://www.stateofobesity.org/states/wv/

West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources. (2019). Fast Facts. Retrieved 31 August 2019, from https://dhhr.wv.gov/hpcd/data_reports/Pages/Fast-Facts.aspx

WHO. (2018). Obesity and overweight. Retrieved 31 August 2019, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight

Yancey, T. D. (2015). A Regional Comparison of Intellectual Disability Rates in Appalachia.

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