Instructional Content and Implications

Multicultural Lesson Plan
Grade Level: Fifth
Subjects: Language Arts, Social Studies, and History
Duration: 5 weeks
Goals:
Introduce the students to various cultures and social concepts to promote diversity and equality in the classroom
Create an atmosphere of discussion in the classroom and allow students to explore new concepts focusing on diversity and equality.
Materials
Five items representing different cultures
Historical artifacts from different cultures
Arts and crafts materials and supplies
Computers with internet
Poster board
Writing materials
Learning Objectives
Develop learning activities that promote diversity and equality in the classroom.
Students should be able to express ideas, identify behaviors and practices that promote diversity and equality in education
Students should articulate and display behaviors that imitate peer collaboration without any form of discrimination
Procedure
At the end of every week, the teacher will provide the students with a different culture influenced by the community.
The students will assemble in groups for discussion.
The students are expected to research and interpret the culture in their own words.
Learners can obtain help from their parents or community leaders if necessary and illustrate it in their journal.
The students will log their progress in a journal for the project
Assessment
Before the next learning activity, the students will be expected to submit their journal entries for assessment on what they have learned.
Implications of Social Class of Education
In the United States, education is not uniformly available to all children in the same way. Children from different social backgrounds are likely to attend different schools, receive different instructions, and even study different curricula. For instance, children from higher-class families are likely to attend exclusive suburban, select public, or private schools, while children from middle-class families are likely to attend private schools or select public schools that their parents can afford (Banks and Banks, 2010). On the other hand, children from lower-class families are likely to attend large urban public schools. Children attending upper, upper-middle, and middle schools have more privileges than children attending urban public schools. For example, the schools have better learning facilities, well-educated teachers who are responsive to student needs, small classes, which guarantee every student gets the teacher attention, and a well-prepared curriculum. The students also have several opportunities to participate in extra-curricular activities, which as Banks and Banks elaborate increases children desire to attend school. By contrast, schools attended by lower-class children are considerably large and highly bureaucratic. The schools often lack resources available in the other schools. The schools are funded by local taxpayers taxes and have a low budget, which is reflected in the lack of proper educational facilities, large class size, less number of teachers who are required to attend to a large number of students, and other disparities. Evidence suggests that differences in social-class have a significant impact on schooling. For instance, as Banks and Banks highlight, children from lower-class families attending urban schools encounter less prepared teachers and are likely to be exposed to less valued curricula. The students also do not get a comprehensive study of the curricula, do less work in the classroom, and in homework assignments too. As a result, these children learn less and are often ill-prepared for their next level of education. Additionally, although several factors contribute to children dropping out of schools, the desire to go to school may contribute to school dropouts.
Importantly noted, the problem of social class is not outspoken when children from the same social background attend the same schools. However, problems arise when children from different social-classes attend the same school. Disparities can be understood from various embedded patterns of inequality. For instance, children from minority groups who attend better schools on scholarship are likely to have problems interacting with children from families that are from a higher social class. According to Goudeau and Croizet (2017), the inability to fit with the other students can affect their participation in the classroom and hinder their contribution to classroom discussion. Consequently, students from minority groups due to social-class are likely to be disproportionately represented in low ability groups. The students are likely to score below average due to factors in their homes that affect their cognitive concentration and hinder participation in the classroom. Children from lower-class families are also less likely to complete their assignments, which may result in underscoring or underperformance in the classroom.
Handling Implications from Social-Class Inequalities
Virtually, there are several ways teachers can handle problems associated with social class inequalities. For instance, the teacher can consider using differentiated instructional strategies and curricular assignments to address the learning needs of individual learners. However, the most effective method of handling these implications is integrating social concepts into the curriculum. Developing a lesson plan that focuses on promoting diversity and equality in the classroom can eliminate these implications (Shields, Newman, & Satz, 2017). The teacher should provide an environment where students work together and embrace the diversity in the classroom. Adopting this strategy will promote education equality, encourage student empowerment, and ensure that students recognize the uniqueness of their peers.
Instructional Strategies that Avoid the Seven Forms of Gender Bias
Gender bias is prevalent in today’s curriculum. Researchers have identified seven forms of gender bias that can also be used to identify prejudice across other social concepts such as race, ethnicity, and special-needs learners among others. The seven forms of bias include invisibility, which involves under-representation of specific groups of learners because they are seen as of less value. For instance, some textbooks give less attention to women, depriving learners’ information about this particular gender. Invisibility is also present in people with disabilities, or transgender people. The second form of gender bias is stereotyping, which occurs when certain roles are assigned to a particular group based on traditions or misconceptions. The problem with stereotyping is that it limits the ability of the other group and denies the students’ knowledge on diversity. The third form is imbalance/selectivity, which occurs only one perspective is offered, distortion of reality, or ignoring different viewpoints. The fourth form of gender bias is unreality. This form of gender bias involves presenting an unrealistic side of information such as concerning the history of the United States. The fifth form of gender bias is fragmentation, which encompasses isolating certain topics. Presenting gender issues pertaining to women as interesting diversions, but suggesting that they do not constitute the main content of the curriculum is a form of fragmentation bias. The sixth form of gender bias is linguistic bias, which involves the exclusive use of masculine terms, isolating or failing to recognize women. The last form of gender bias is cosmetic bias. This form involves creating a false impression that certain texts or materials are infused with equity and diversity.
Teachers have the ability to avoid the seven forms of gender bias by incorporating various instructional strategies. For instance, teachers should consider replacing gender-biased textbooks with instructional materials that incorporate diversity and equality in education. The other instructional strategy is analyzing the seating arrangement or group arrangement to identify signs of class, race, ethnic, or gender bias in the classroom. The teacher should arrange the discussion groups in a way that promotes diversity and equality. It is also important for the teacher to give equal attention to all the students to avoid issues of teacher-student bias. The other strategy to avoid gender bias is not tolerating harmful, bullying or harassment in the classroom. The teacher should discourage the use of sexist or racial remarks or behaviors. As Banks and Banks note, if the teacher does not tolerate prejudice, students will learn to respect each other’s diversity.
Conceptualizing and Implementing the Lesson
Guided Practice
The teacher will introduce the topic of discussion and have students work in groups of five to discuss the culture. The students will be expected to list their findings on the different cultures and present them to the rest of the classroom. The teacher will monitor the work of the students, noting the use of gender bias language and correcting the students where necessary.
Independent practice
After the group discussion and the presentation, the teacher will provide the students with a journal entry question. The students must research and enter their findings in the journal entry.
Differentiated Learning
Provide gifted learners with activities for higher order thinking and research
Provide intellectually challenged learners with differentiated tasks. The teacher will provide these learners with the same tasks as the other learners, but use simplified language to ensure they understand. For instance, the teacher will match vocabulary words with definitions to make it easy for the student to remember and understand the assignment.
The teacher will provide visual representations for the intellectually, group gifted learners with other special needs learners such as English language learners.
Accommodations
Provide copies of notes to students with IEP and difficulty hand-eye coordination
Meet with parents of children with special learning needs to show the strategies to support their children research
Provide students with no access to computers and the internet at home with time to research at the school
Provide extra time for special needs learners to process information
Provider reminders for students
Multicultural education focuses on changing the educational structure to ensure that members of diverse ethnic, racial, and cultural groups among others receive equal opportunities in the classroom setting (Yılmaz & Boylan, 2016). The school as a social system plays a significant role in eliminating segregation issues and enabling students to embrace diversity and equality, which is later reflected in the society. Educators and teachers have a responsibility to design lesson plans focusing on diversity and equality by integrating social concepts in the classroom. As highlighted, social concepts such as social-class have various implications for schooling. However, teachers have the ability to eliminate these implications by introducing lessons that promote diversity and equality. The paper also addressed the issue of gender bias and highlighted various instructional strategies that can be adopted to eliminate the seven forms of gender bias.

References
Banks, J. A., & Banks, C. A. M. (2010). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. Hoboken: J. Wiley.
Goudeau, S., & Croizet, J.-C. (2017). Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class: How Classroom Settings Reproduce Social Inequality by Staging Unfair Comparison. Psychological Science, 28(2), 162-170.
Shields, L., Newman, A., Satz, D. (2017). Equality of Educational Opportunity. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/equal-ed-opportunity/
Yılmaz, F., & Boylan, M. (December 31, 2016). Multiculturalism and multicultural education: A case study of teacher candidates’ perceptions. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1-13.

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