Bio Chemistry – Scientific reasoning

Q. 1

The boiling point of a compound is influenced by the intermolecular forces of attraction. Trimethylamine is a tertiary amine, where all hydrogens in an ammonia molecule are normally replaced by hydrocarbon groups. 1-Hexanamine is a primary amine, which can form hydrogen bonds with each other, as well as, van der Waals dispersion forces and dipole-dipole interactions. 

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Q. 2

The boiling point of a compound is influenced by the intermolecular forces of attraction. More strong intermolecular forces imply that more energy will be needed to break it and hence have a higher boiling point. Since propanal and 1-propanal have the same molecular weight, the difference in boiling point is caused by the functional groups. 1-propanol is alcohol and has stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonds due to the presence of polar O-H bond. On the other hand, propanol is an aldehyde, which does not have a polar O-H, hence do not form a strong intermolecular hydrogen bond. This is the main reason for the difference in boiling point between propanol and 1-propanol. 

Q. 3

Stearic acid is contained of all single bonds and thereby referred to as saturated fat. On the other hand, linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acid, is a polyunsaturated fat because of the presence of two double bonds between the carbon atoms. Stearic acid has a higher melting point than linoleic because of the difference in the structure. The presence of the double bonds in linoleic acid leads to the formation of a kink, which prevents the molecules from being tightly packed, unlike the structure of stearic acid whose molecules are tightly packed and hence the difference in melting point. 

Q. 4

Amides are commonly found in antibacterial, which may include sulfonamides, phosphoramides, carboxamaide, penciline, paracetamol, acetamide, hexamine, propanamide, and benzenesulfonamide. The common features of amides include; they are soluble in, have an aromatic smell, physical appearance includes white and magenta colors; and has a melting point of 30 degrees. The mechanism of action includes inhibiting cell wall and cell membrane synthesis and killing of infectious microorganisms that cause a specific disease. In their action against the cell membrane, the amides are known to act by disrupting the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.

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