25. Rococo and the Enlightenment on the Continent

In this chapter “Rococo and the Enlightenment on the Continent,” the author discusses the idea of the continent enlightenment and Rocco, which is believed to be drawn from French word rocaille. Rocco is an artistic style that is associated with decorative elaboration. The author discusses the lives of various historical people. The authors describe through on the enlightenment of the continent through education and arts. At the beginning of the chapter, Sayre draws attention to the activities done in the hotels that all had a salon (Sayre, 813). The salons were considered a place for social gatherings. That became the center of French culture. The author draws the picture of people coming each for the various gathering to interact. The authors describe most of the philosophers being deists who believed in natural law. He argues that men should not be free until the last king is strangled and their entrail with the priest. After the fire that rocked the entire London, the author writes about the proposition by Wren to build the city. That being impractical, he is given a commission to build 52 churches that were burnt down.

 The author discusses the various architecture that rose and the enlightenment from empirical thinking and imaginations. Contrary to the inductive thinking, deductive thinking, introduced by rene decartes made the mark. The author describes the development of, science by various people, Kepler galileo, newton, and Leeuwenhoek. This brought about various experiments involving physics. The experiments and the collaboration with manufacturers and naturalist-led to the industrial revolution. Following civil wars and the restoration of monarchy led to the discussion on the type of rule and the loss in Judea-Christians poetry. The in-depth look by some keen observers realized moral bankruptcy and cauldron of social ferment. Moreover, the enlightenment brought about the acceptance of the English language by the English. The decorations one acceptance in France, Rocco and the English garden layout were part of the enlightenment.

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I am drawn with the various development indicated by the author throughout development and enlightenment. The development in science and the liberal fights for the freedom of people truly give the worth of freedom today (Sayre, 822). I agree with the author on the aspect of various struggles; the cross-cultural and the fight for the freedom from slavery is worth the praise. I am pleased with the social gathering that brought industrial revolution and scientific development. The simple, passionate experiments coupled with the desire to make a change changed the perception and look of the world today. I appreciate the works by the decorator who had the various decorations to make the institutions and dwelling places beautiful.

 By reading and reflecting on the various developments experienced overtime by these groups in the 18th and 19th centuries, it is hard to leave without an appreciation. The changes in the rule between absolutism and liberalism gave the opportunity to make amends on the tyrant rule before it took exploited the others. The move by the decorator like Rocco and the fates gallants makes the interior designs today. The various experiments by the scientist have brought the enlightenment to the current world as they are the major deals for today’s science. The innovations like are of more significant help to society today. For example, bulb and oxygen for the little experiment using a bird  helped in not only lighting but also health and firefighters.  I would also commend on the excellent cooperation within the society, however, with great discretion to the group that sought to exploit people. The corporations helped today’s world in the organization of better structures and associations. 

26. Rights of Man

The chapter “Rights of Man” discusses the revolution and neoclassical styles in leadership.  The author mentions neoclassicism is the modest idealism that came after the America and France revolution that is rational, stable, and balanced. The rule also imitates the said cultures of Rome and Athens.  The author describes the reign of terror between 1743 and 1744 in France that saw the revolution (Sayre, 867). The guillotine was used as a threat to punish the French nationals who were against national security using beheading. 

One of the French national that faced beheading in guillotine was Olympe de Guages- women activist who wrote about mostly about the equality of women. She always advocated for women rights during the neoclassicism movements. Besides her, the author identifies another female writer on women rights, Mary Wollstonecraft (Sayre, 876). She widened the enlightenment on equal rights for women writers. In her book vindication of rights of women, she declares that liberty is the mother of virtue. She says that if their constitution made women slaves and prevented from getting the invigorating air of freedom, they should reckon on that constitution. The author states that men’s rights are separate from women because they are placed in different social spheres (Sayre, 885). The author argues that women are biologically different from men and therefore, the different social field. These rights were liberty or freedom from oppression and expression, right for ownership of properties, the reasons for security and resistance to abuse, and the rights to vote. The right to vote then was guaranteed to women, and they were allowed to vote.

I wouldn’t go for anything less than the rights of every individual seen to fulfillment. The rights of women and men should be the basis of any functional system. The author’s exploration of the various atrocities, including the beheading of the women activists in gauges was unfortunate. The others who are oppressed that they cannot make a sound should not be in the system. Thanks to the neoclassicism, there is a place for everyone to boldly and certainly voice their concerns. I am in support for the neoclassical rule that would be inclusive and align with the culture of people of Rome and Athens that gives rights in a different sphere. I am in support of growth for every individual in the society to help the extension as a unit.

Reading and reflecting on peoples’ rights in revolution and neoclassical rule, I appreciate the journey to justice and liberation of individuals.  I am grateful for changes in the constitution that would judge the person by a person by the quality of their character and not the gender. I appreciate the various benefits and freedoms that we enjoy today without the fight or the threat of killings if one goes against what is not acceptable to the other party. In the modern setting, I can fully appreciate the work of historical development in making a world a better place to live in without hassles.  It is also better reflecting on the worth of lives and the lives that were lost to attain the freedom enjoyed today.

27. The Romantic World View

In this chapter, “The Romantic World View” discusses the beautiful feelings that come with the feel of nature. Nature provides a softer landing ground for the worries and the troubles for those who seek it. The chapter brings in the association of nature and the satisfaction derived from the art given by the breathtaking natural scenes. In the beginning, the author describes the pleasure derived from nature, disinterested satisfaction. The author brings the real association from Tintern abbey poetry. Here, the poet says that the feeling he had earlier for the place was a little appetite but later defines nature as his anchor and nurse (Sayre, 885). Wordsworth argues that interacting with nature’s beauty dissolves all imagination. That can summarize the concept of; it matters far less knowing the distance between the earth and the moon than the feeling of seeing the moon in the sky in the dark sky (Sayre, 884)

The chapter also brings the aspect of love and describes it in the concept of romanticism, the outpouring of feelings, and emotional intensity (Sayre, 884). The chapter brings the idea of love through Wordsworth description that it the essential passions of the heart attain maturity after finding fertile soil. At that place, the heart is less restrained and speaks plainly and with explicit language (Sayre, 886). Wordsworth also encourages the sister to find a better place as he.  Even with the skeptical tone about the nature for the mariner in Coleridge poem still, he finds love and so is Gretchen after killing and claiming that feeling is all (Sayre, 903). It should be understood that the different poems written by Wordsworth is as a result of his love or being drawn to nature. Wordsworth, with his friend, lives their lives writing poems amount the beauty of nature. The deep feeling they had for nature drew them into deeper thinking as the author claims only a man with deeper feelings can have deeper thinking.

I am with the author on the aspect of the interaction with nature; the feeling breeds an aura of peace and harmony. I take it as the best description of the feelings I get from the visit to various new places. The authors take on love of nature concurs with my most significant take on the beauty of nature.  The nature of a waterfall and the peace that comes with the looking at the calm waters and the quiet forest makes one develop a communication with the inner self and nature. In the development of inner feeling, imaginations and creativity are as a result of the feelings. Developing and coming up with a new idea is brought by the feelings of passion towards it. The author’s description of the ills of human is also a show of what exactly ails society. With a more significant number of leaders trying to wage wars and destruction on their people through corruption and dirty dealings, we still live in a man eat man society.

  Reading and reflecting on the author’s scripts brings me the reality of the world we live in. The author makes me appreciate nature and love for it. I am also drawn to the fact that the realization of the pure romanticism with nature is the best rewards one can ever give them. The divine feeling from the interaction with nature should give more reason for the protection of nature against all evils. The aspect of the destruction of nature with greedy individuals should be condemned, and the world should be made a better place for coexistence with nature.  For that, romanticism rules and having it greatly rewards.    

28. Industry and the Working Class

In this chapter “Industry and The Working Class,” Sayre goes through the age of the industrial revolution in England. The life as focused on the story of dickens and the various revolutionaries. The chapter dismisses the theory of romanticism by focusing on the reality of the ills in society; the new idealism. Dickens who wrote so many motions in the august house is only left pleased by the number of the motions to the august house failed to pass. Various social ills bring the revolution of the industries and the establishment of the urban environment. The occurrence of water and housing problems with bacteria causing cholera and other diseases, the development of London into an urban center solved that making the neighboring houses into slums. As a result of industrialization, the British people became the working class that had no ownership of the job or controlled their jobs.  The children worked as assistants, and the wives were entirely domestic.

The reformers, like Pugin, published a book in reaction to the decay of taste while the other counterparts in France and England argued for a community where all would share work and wealth (Sayre, 932). Others called for the return of the old rules while the other groups like Pugin resort to the Christian restoration. The author argues that there are three stages of change, the first being spiritual, conceitedness, and science, which is the reality. The author brings out the literary realism in dickens hard times, French claim on the view of the world in reality and slavery in America. The people resorted to the use of photography to send the message of realism. Photography was made personalized and available to all from the low, medium, and working class. The author delves in the objective reporting of real conditions in science. That is when Charles Darwin came up with the theory of natural selection where specific organisms can live more if they retain the characteristic of survival and eliminating the group that is weak for survival.

I am in acceptance with the literary idealism. The ideal utopianism by Charles Fourier and Robert Owen is a dream that cannot be achieved. The focus on realism does not dispute the fact of care for nature but only supports the survival for the fittest. The idealists argued that the best would fight for resources and wealth, and they will have to do it at the downfall of the others (Sayre, 937). In a more real-time activity, it is not possible to get to the top without working for it. Idealism puts everything into perspective, and I agree with such. Besides learning about others struggle makes me feel empowered to work for the better. I would accept the Christian values traded by Augustine, however, it must be based on the Christians scripts that say whoever does not work should not eat. I would not dispute romanticism in totality but would accept the fact that we need to protect the environment that we have as we trounce on the weak to the top. At one point, getting what makes you feel better by connecting to the environment is best for everyone’s healing. 

Reading on the author’s concept of the struggle for a better society makes me reflect the memories of various revolutionary movements in fights for the rights of different individuals. The fight against child labor occurred up to around millennium. The movements for equality in women, giving birth to various debates on feminism and male chauvinists are not a new thing (Sayre,  946). The concept of new leaders using all means possible to achieve their goals is what I always see in society. Getting to the top, using any means of survival, agrees with the concept of Charles Darwin. 

ReferencesSayre, Henry M. The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change, Volume II Plus NEW MyArtsLab with Pearson EText — Access Card Package. Pearson College Division, 2014.

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